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Following in the Footsteps of a Soldier: Private Samuel Churchill of the 20th OVI

By David L. Mowery

May 21, 1998

© 1998 David L. Mowery and the Cincinnati Civil War Round Table

Braxton Bragg
Introduction

Before September 1993, the recorded life of Samuel S. Churchill was nothing more than a couple of dates, a few relatives' names, and a scattering of oral stories that had been passed down through the years. Other than knowing that Samuel Churchill was my ancestor, though his relationship to me was yet uncertain, little was known about the man except for the sketchy stories that my father would tell of Samuel being a soldier in the Civil War and living in Lima, Ohio, after the war. However, the stories were enough to spark an interest in learning more, and so my family and I endeavored to search for information about this old soldier of the past; little did we know that what had started as a matter of curiosity became more of an insatiable ambition to find anything and everything about a man who seemed so simple to those who had lived with him, yet appeared so great to all who have come to know him through the history he has left behind.

Life in the Midwest

Samuel S. Churchill was born on December 19, 1842, in a clapboard house located near the center of the village of Parsippany, New Jersey. The house had been built around 1770, and had been purchased by Samuel's grandfather, William Churchill, around 1815. (1)

Samuel was the first child of Charles and Harriet (Van Ness) Churchill. Harriet had come from a prominent New Jersey family. Her great-grandfather, Jacob Van Ness, had been wealthy enough to own slaves in the days when New Jersey had been a British colony. As a child, Samuel may have been told the stories of how his great-great grandfathers, Captain Thomas Doremus and Militiaman Joel Halsey, had fought for New Jersey during the American Revolution. Also in the household lived his grandfather, William, his step-grandmother, Sarah, his step-uncle David, and his two aunts, Mary and Elizabeth. Samuel's arrival had caused the home to become overcrowded, so William sold the house one-month later and moved his family to a large farm west of town. (2)

When Charles and Harriet bore another child, Anna, in 1844, William Churchill sold the farm, packed up his family and their belongings, and migrated west to Ohio. The rich farmlands of Ohio's Miami Valley attracted him to a pleasant 82-acre farm about two and one-half miles west of Sidney, Ohio. One year later, Samuel's father, Charles, took his young wife and two small children and headed for Union County, Indiana. In 1845 Charles purchased a small plot of land in the village of Billingsville, Indiana. A year later, Samuel's younger brother, William N. Churchill, was born. (3)

Charles taught Samuel the ways of Indiana farm life, but Charles could not prepare his son for the tragedies that life brought to people of those times. When he was 10 years old, his mother passed away on February 22, 1853. Charles buried his wife in a cemetery a few miles west of Billingsville. (4)

In 1856, three years after Harriet's death, Charles married Ellen Howard, a resident of Billingsville. That same year, Charles and his new wife moved their family back to the farm of Samuel's aging grandfather in Sidney, Ohio. Samuel was able to help his father and grandfather tend to the farm, all the while growing into a young man during a time of increasing political turbulence. (5)

From Farmer to Soldier

In the summer of 1861 local newspapers such as the Lima Weekly Gazette and the Sidney Journal advertised that Company F, 20th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, would be recruiting in the region. On September 16, 1861, 18-year old Samuel Churchill made the decision to leave the tranquil farm life behind him to take on the glory of becoming a soldier. With his brother-in-law, John C. Stipp, near his side, Samuel left his grandfather's farm and traveled two and one-half miles into town. (6)

A crowd had gathered in Sidney's public square when Samuel and John arrived. Men and boys lined up at the Shelby County Courthouse to join Captain W. W. Updegraff's company of the 20th Ohio Infantry. Among those young hearts anxious to join the cause that day was 23-year old Edmund E. Nutt, a native of Sidney and a former schoolteacher. Edmund had just been mustered out of the 15th Ohio Volunteer Infantry two weeks earlier, and now he wished to cast his lot with the 20th. Samuel signed his name to the muster roll as a private for three-year's service, while his brother-in-law, John, signed up as a corporal. (7)

The crowd escorted the recruits to the Sidney depot, where Samuel, John, and the other enlisted men of Shelby County boarded a train that would take them to the regiment's rendezvous at Camp Chase, Ohio. Samuel left behind his father Charles, his grandfather William, his aunt Mary, his brother Willie, and his sister Anna. For Anna, the day was certainly an emotional one, since she not only had to say good-bye to her brother, but also had to wish farewell to her husband, John Stipp. (8)

As the train pulled into the station at Columbus, Ohio, cheers from boys and men gathered about the depot greeted the recruits. Samuel was transported by wagon to Camp Chase, a large Federal military installation located four miles west of Columbus. The camp consisted of wooden huts lined up in rows upon open fields. One of Samuel's comrades, 18-year old Private Henry Otis Dwight of Company D, 20th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, was at Camp Chase when the Shelby County boys arrived. Henry Dwight, who had emigrated with his father from Constantinople to New Jersey earlier that year, had been a student at Ohio Wesleyan College. He also had been a member of the "Lenape Greys," a militia group formed in Delaware, Ohio, after the fall of Fort Sumter. Dwight described Camp Chase in his memoirs as follows: "Our quarters were dismal enough -- bare shanties, with rough board platforms on which we might lie down and sleep. The delights of martial life were once and forever driven from our visions as we found ourselves huddled together between the bare walls with absolutely nothing that we could call our own save our carpetbags." (9)

Military records from 1864 described Samuel Churchill as being 5 feet, 8 inches tall and weighing 130 pounds; he had light (sandy-blonde) hair, gray eyes, and a dark complexion. Samuel had a partially hared upper lip and cleft palate that he had been marked with since childbirth. This deformity caused his speech to sound nasal and imperfect. Though facial birthmarks scarred Samuel, his good health allowed him to pass the initial physical examination of the camp surgeons. He was then given his uniform, shoes, underclothes, stockings, knapsack, haversack, and blanket -- the only things a soldier could call his own. (10)

On October 16, 1861, the 20th Ohio, only seven companies strong, left Camp Chase and traveled by rail to Camp Dennison, Ohio, located 13 miles northeast of Cincinnati. Five days later, the men were marched to Camp King, a small camp of instruction located two miles south of Covington, Kentucky, near the present-day intersection of Lincoln Avenue and 32nd Street. It was at Camp King that Churchill learned the art of a soldier, being taught discipline through constant drill. They also received their weapons, Harper's Ferry rifle-muskets. The military routines that Samuel and his comrades learned at Camp King were the same ones they would carry with them throughout the war. (11)

The first commander of the 20th Ohio was 53-year old Colonel Charles Whittlesey, who was declared by his men as the "Father of the regiment." Whittlesey was a West Point graduate and an old friend of Brigadier-General Ormsby M. Mitchel. Mitchel assigned him to detached duty as Chief Engineer in the design and construction of the Cincinnati defenses. Although the Colonel often drew work details from the ranks of the 20th Ohio to help build the fortifications, he spent most of his time away from the regiment. (12)

Manning Force
Manning K. Force
Left in charge of the new recruits was the next-in-command, Lieutenant-Colonel Manning Ferguson Force. A successful Ohio lawyer before the war, this 37-year old graduate of Harvard Law School had never seen combat of any kind before, and now he had the responsibility of preparing other men for war. Although Manning Force was a strict disciplinarian, he kept the welfare of his men above all else, and they grew to love him as their commander. (13)

When not drilling or parading, Samuel Churchill helped to guard three or four of Colonel Whittlesey's fortifications that covered approaches to Covington and Cincinnati from the south. Among those earthworks that the 20th Ohio manned from the autumn of 1861 through the winter of 1861-62 were the Tunnel Battery, a key point in the Cincinnati defense line which protected the strategic Louisville & Nashville Railroad, and Fort Mitchel, which covered the main road between Louisville and Cincinnati. During the long, dull hours in the forts, the men often engaged in target practice to keep themselves amused. (14)

Samuel Churchill lay many days and nights upon the ground in his small tent shared by 13 other men. In his free time he might have engaged in bayonet exercise, which became popular as a gymnastic sport among the men. In the evenings he may have joined in on songs, tale telling, or card playing. Gambling, of course, was strictly prohibited. (15

On January 12, 1862, Samuel's company was moved to Newport Barracks, Kentucky, for winter quarters. Private David Harrison Thomas of Company D, 20th Ohio, wrote in his diary that the men disliked the old barracks because of their uncleanliness. "It is much better to be in camp a Sleaping [sic] on the ground then it is hear [sic]," Thomas remarked. (16)

During its stay at Newport Barracks, the regiment continued to guard the batteries and earthworks around Covington and Newport. Samuel was detailed for guard duty at the U.S. Marine Hospital in Cincinnati, the site of which lies today within the Interstate-71 median just north of the 6th Street overpass. He also guarded the Observatory Hill Battery, which stood at what is now the reservoir within Eden Park in Cincinnati. Samuel and the rest of his company spent three-day shifts at each of these places before being relieved by another company of the 20th Ohio. (17)

At last the day came that many men in the regiment had longed for -- the 20th Ohio was to join with Major-General Ulysses S. Grant's army heading for the front. On February 11, 1862, the regiment, now at full strength, boarded two steamboats named the Emma Duncan and the Doctor Kane. Their destination being unknown, many men had the feeling that the worst was ahead for them. While a crowd that had gathered along the Cincinnati bank of the Ohio River cheered for the regiment, another crowd yelled "Hurrah for Jeff Davis" at them from the Kentucky bank. The steamers pulled away from shore and steamed down the Ohio. It would be the last time that Samuel would see Northern soil for two years. (18)

The First Sight of War

On February 14, 1862, Samuel's transport neared a bend in the Cumberland River about five miles downstream of Dover, Tennessee. Sergeant Henry Otis Dwight recalled what happened next: "Every heart beat quicker as we heard plainly enough the faint distant boom of cannon! We gathered in little groups and talked in low excited tones. We were for the first time within hearing distance of a battle!" Samuel witnessed the defeat of the Union flotilla as it attempted to bombard Confederate-held Fort Donelson into submission. Naval wreckage and mangled corpses floated by to remind the men in the 20th that war was not a game. (19)

Lew Wallace
The next day, the 20th Ohio was ordered to march under the direction of Major-General Lew Wallace to somewhere on Grant's right flank. Samuel disembarked from the boat, stepped out onto the bank, and with knapsack and rifle slung over him, marched into the woods. Colonel Whittlesey led the regiment over 10 miles of twisting, hilly roads engulfed by dense Tennessee forest. Along the way, the men passed General Grant riding toward the river. (20)

The regiment at last reached a cleared woods where other regiments lay in reserve along the Wynns Ferry Road. A "deafening sound of musketry" emanating from a deep valley to their front made the men in the 20th nervous. "It is the unknown that terrifies and our feeling our way into this battle in the way that we did was to all of us one of the most trying experiences of the whole war," recalled Sergeant Dwight. The regiment removed knapsacks and formed into line of battle behind the 8th Missouri Infantry. As Samuel stood under fire for the first time, bullets whizzed by him and smacked into trees nearby, and shells screamed overhead and exploded to their rear. He saw hoards of wounded men and stragglers pass the regiment, and he listened as they told tales of woe and destruction from where they had come. Then suddenly the Chicago Board of Trade Battery, rushing for the front, nearly ran over some of the men before they had the chance to move off of the road. But not one man in the 20th Ohio left the ranks during this trying time. (21)

After a brief lull in the battle, the calm Colonel Whittlesey led the 20th Ohio forward in reserve to Thayer's brigade. They entered the thickly wooded valley that had been the scene of heavy fighting since the morning, and as they marched, Samuel saw some dead men scattered upon the forest floor. The regiment halted and encamped upon the battlefield. During the night the men huddled around campfires to recount their first sight of war. (22)

The next morning, on February 16, the cheers of Grant's army swept through the forest when the news came that the garrison at Fort Donelson had surrendered unconditionally. Major-General Grant detailed the 20th Ohio Infantry to escort to Northern prison camps about half of the 12000 Confederate soldiers captured at Fort Donelson. Assigning one company for every 600 Rebels, the soldiers and their prisoners embarked from Dover Landing on steamers destined for various prison camps in the North. (23)

Along the route, the flotilla passed by a mostly-secessionist town named Eddyville, Kentucky. Some of the Confederate prisoners on board waved to their families and friends cheering from the bank. Samuel's Company F dropped off its prisoners at Acton, Illinois, and then marched to East Saint Louis where they encamped on an "unhealthy campground" for two weeks. (24)

Soldiering in Tennessee

William T. Sherman
During the first week of March, most of the 20th Ohio rendezvoused at Cairo, Illinois, and took the steamer Continental up the Tennessee River. Major-General William Tecumseh Sherman was on board the steamer with them, and he criticized the men of the 20th by commenting that they looked like a "bunch of dandies." The large flotilla of Grant's transports arrived at Pittsburg Landing on March 20, 1862. (25)

While at Pittsburg Landing, Colonel Charles Whittlesey was assigned to lead the 3rd Brigade of Lew Wallace's Division, leaving Lieutenant-Colonel Manning Force to take command of the 20th Ohio. The regiment was encamped at Adamsville, Tennessee, when the sounds of battle near Shiloh Church reached Samuel's ears on Sunday, April 6, 1862. Having marched and countermarched along muddy roads most of the afternoon, it was not until 8 o'clock that night when the 20th Ohio crossed the Snake Creek Bridge and marched to support Grant's extreme right flank. A driving rain soaked Churchill and his comrades as they fell into line near the abandoned camp of the 81st Ohio. Dead men littered the campsite, and the enemy was so close that fires were prohibited. "It was an awful night," recalled Henry Otis Dwight. (26>

At dawn on April 7, Colonel Whittlesey formed the brigade into line and pushed forward through the tall rushes of Tilghman Branch creek. Bullets from Confederate pickets clipped the leaves from trees above Samuel's head. Alongside the 20th Ohio were the men of the 78th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, led by Colonel Mortimer Leggett., who would accompany the 20th through most every battle and campaign for the duration of the war. (27)

The 3rd Brigade passed through Glover Field and continued into the woods on the other side. Just north of Jones Field, while lying behind a crest of a hill in the woods, the men were shelled by a Confederate battery positioned about 800 yards away. The 20th Ohio took its first battle casualty here when a man in Company K was wounded. Whittlesey ordered the men to fix bayonets. Moving forward, the regiment arrived at the northwest corner of Jones Field around 11:00am. There Samuel Churchill saw thousands of Union and Confederate troops arrayed in opposing battle lines within the smoke-filled field. Shouts, cheers, yells, and cries mingled with the crash of musketry and the roar of cannon that presented, as Dwight wrote, "a vast medley of ear-splitting sounds, a swift whirling tempest of mad action, beyond imagination and indescribable." (28)

At noon Manning Force led the 20th pass the Crescent Field, where three men and one officer were wounded by a storm of Confederate bullets that had overshot their intended targets. Undaunted, the regiment proceeded in columns of fours up a narrow, windy road farther to the right, into a piece of woods. "The rebels caught sight of the glint of our guns among the trees, and they gave us shrapnel and then canister," recalled Sergeant Dwight. Most of the shot passed over Samuel's head. "Bowing gracefully to the enemy" as the famed Washington Artillery of Louisiana spewed more canister at them, the men moved steadily forward until they reached a rail fence bordering the north side of Ben Howell's Field. At this point, the Confederate battery opened with a well-directed fire upon Samuel and his comrades, who lay behind the fence on their bellies. Muskets were bent and swords were snapped in half. One man in Company B was killed -- the first death in battle incurred by the regiment -- and ten others were wounded. Samuel could see the Rebel battery on the other end of the field as puffs of smoke emanated from the cannon. After firing about ten rounds at the 20th Ohio, the enemy artillery, having no infantry support, limbered up and retreated. (29)

The battle sputtered out around 4:00pm, and the 20th Ohio advanced to the opposite end of Ben Howell's Field and encamped at its southwest corner. Later the men scavenged the field for better weapons to replace their cumbersome Harper's Ferry rifle-muskets. The search was not in vain, because the soldiers found many good Confederate Enfield rifles lying on the ground. Two weeks later all of the men in the regiment would have the prized Enfield Rifles. (30)

For the next two months the 20th Ohio camped at Pittsburg Landing, where the regiment guarded the military stores and roads in the area. Colonel Whittlesey resigned from the army on April 19 due to health problems, and Manning Force was promoted to Colonel of the regiment. The campground at Pittsburg Landing was very poor and unhealthy. The stench of rotting horses and half-buried soldiers pervaded the forest, and the unclean water added to the general filthiness of the place. Sickness ran rampant among the men, and at one point during the regiment's stay, only 80 men answered roll call. However, Samuel Churchill remained healthy up to the time the 20th Ohio left on June 2, 1862. (31)

On June 6 Samuel and his comrades arrived at Bolivar, Tennessee, and set up camp. The surroundings here were much different from those they had experienced at Pittsburg Landing. "Imagine a most graceful curve of a narrow deep river, bordered by grand old trees ... and surrounding a green sward thick with daisies and buttercups and dotted with white tents, and you have our camp at Bolivar," remembered Sergeant Henry Otis Dwight. (32)

The regiment spent the summer of 1862 performing guard duty in the region around Bolivar. On June 27, Samuel Churchill reported sick to the hospital at Bolivar, and was left behind when his regiment marched off to the village of Grand Junction, Tennessee, the next day. Samuel recovered quickly, however, since he was able to rejoin Company F at Grand Junction, where they spent several weeks guarding a mountain of hardtack and salt pork to be used by Grant's army. (33)

In August the regiment returned to the camp at Bolivar, and it was there that Samuel Churchill met Richard Mitchell, a former slave who had managed to become a servant to Captain Rodgers of Company E while the 20th Ohio occupied Bolivar. In early 1863 Richard would be reassigned as Major John C. Fry's hostler. Samuel and Richard formed a strong friendship during the summer of 1862 that would last for the duration of Churchill's life. (34)

On the night of August 29, the mounted pickets of the 20th Ohio, nicknamed the "Jackass Cavalry," ran into the vanguard of Brigadier-General Frank C. Armstrong's Confederate cavalry approaching Middleburg, Tennessee. Early next morning, the pickets developed the enemy, who formed in line of battle two miles south of the intersection of the Middleburg and Van Buren roads. The rest of 20th Ohio was ordered out from Bolivar at 10:00am to support the skirmishers. (35)

Company F was placed on the left flank along the Van Buren Road, where they engaged portions of Nathan Bedford Forrest's, Wirt Adams's, and William H. Jackson's cavalry at long range. Samuel Churchill fought in this position for nearly 5 hours, when the Company was ordered to march secretly to the right flank in support of the 9th Indiana Battery and the 78th Ohio. There, in a position near the road intersection on the north side of an open field, Samuel Churchill and the soldiers of his company helped to turn back repeated charges made by Armstrong's cavalry. The Confederate forces retreated, though they had outnumbered the Union forces on the field by over 3 to 1. (36)

On September 15 the 20th left Bolivar, Tennessee, by rail to connect with the rest of Grant's army concentrating at Corinth, Mississippi. The 20th Ohio formed the advance guard of Ross's Division of E.O.C Ord's Left Wing at Burnsville, Mississippi. On September 18, as Samuel Churchill and the rest of the regiment waded through swamps east of Burnsville, they ran into Wirt Adams's Confederate cavalry, which quickly fell back after firing a few shots. The 20th Ohio deployed as skirmishers, but were recalled to a hill east of Burnsville and were ordered to make camp. On the morning of September 20, Manning Force led the 20th Ohio down the road into Iuka, expecting to see the enemy. However, due to the failure of Ord to move the previous day, the Union army had allowed Sterling Price's army to escape Grant's trap. The regiment returned to their camp at Bolivar. (37)

On October 5, 1862, Samuel and his regiment were marched to the region around Pocohontas, Tennessee, but found no Rebels to fight. They returned to Bolivar. (38)

John Logan
On November 4, the 20th Ohio moved to LaGrange, Tennessee, where they stayed for nearly a month until Grant's Central Mississippi Campaign began. During this time the army was reorganized, and the 20th Ohio was assigned to Leggett's 2nd Brigade of John A. Logan's Division. On November 28, the regiment left LaGrange and headed southward. (39)

On December 6, 1862, while the regiment lay in camp at Waterford, Mississippi, Samuel Churchill became sick and went to the hospital with a high fever. His condition quickly worsened, and he was transferred to the military hospital in Holly Springs, Mississippi, around December 18. Diagnosed as suffering from typhoid fever, Samuel was placed in an old church in town. Today, an insurance agency's parking lot occupies the site of the church. (40)

A horrible incident occurred in Holly Springs on December 20. While Churchill lay as a patient in the hospital one block from the square, Earl Van Dorn's Rebel cavalry stormed into town and captured the entire Union garrison. Surgeon Horace Wirtz, U.S. Army, reported that a Rebel officer rounded up 150 of the sick and wounded so that they could be marched away as prisoners. The soldiers, many of whom were sick from typhoid and diarrhea, fell down in the street from weakness, but they rose again for fear of being shot. Wirtz's pleading with the officer ended the inhumane event, and the sick men were allowed to return to the hospitals. The sick soldiers were left behind when the Confederates evacuated Holly Springs at the approach of Grant's army. (41)

Samuel Churchill, whose condition had stabilized at Holly Springs, was transferred to the large tent hospital at Woodlawn mansion in LaGrange, Tennessee. Here he recovered from his bout with typhoid, and he often feasted upon vegetables and buttermilk donated by the local Southern folks. While Samuel convalesced, the 20th Ohio returned to LaGrange from its expedition into northern Mississippi, and Samuel's friend, Richard, visited him to see how he was getting along. Samuel still felt the effects of his near-death experience, since the typhoid had partially damaged his lungs and had left him in a weakened state. Any hard labor would leave Samuel short of breath to the point of complete exhaustion. However, Churchill recovered enough of his strength to be able to rejoin the regiment at its winter camp in Memphis, Tennessee, on January 28, 1863. (42)

Advance into Mississippi

Though hindered by his damaged health, Churchill performed regular duty with the 20th Ohio until the start of the Vicksburg Campaign in late April of 1863. At Memphis, the men did very little work besides normal drill. Many walked about the city or had their photos taken. The regiment also recruited a brass band to call its own, and they played fine music for their comrades and commanders alike. Samuel and the regiment left Memphis aboard the steamer City of Louisiana on February 22, 1863, and headed south on the Mississippi River. (43)

The 20th Ohio arrived at Lake Providence on February 24, 1863, to help in the construction of a canal connecting Lake Providence to the Mississippi River. Here the regiment set up camp in a large cotton field near the shore of the lake. The men took advantage of their "beautiful camp" by using their free time for rowing, fishing, and swimming during the day and for listening to the 20th Ohio's brass band and glee club at night. (44)

On March 4, the regiment left for Berry's Landing, Louisiana, where they made camp for a month, and then proceeded to Milliken's Bend, Louisiana, on April 17. It was about this time that Churchill's health condition forced him to look for alternate duty, and so his captain assigned him to the position of cook for Company F. The regiment was assigned to clear a road through the swamps south of Milliken's Bend from April 20 - 24, 1863, during which time the men saw their first alligators. They often complained about the clouds of gnats that would swarm about them when dusk arrived, and how difficult it was for the men to eat and sleep with these insects flying into their eyes and mouths.(45)

From Milliken's Bend, the 2nd Brigade was ordered to move to Hard Times Landing, Louisiana, where the 20th Ohio arrived on April 29 after a grueling four-day march over muddy roads. On May 1, 1863, Samuel and his fellow soldiers boarded steamboats and crossed the mighty Mississippi River to Bruinsburg, Mississippi. Being late in the afternoon before they reached the opposite shore, the men of the 2nd Brigade were too late to participate in the Battle of Port Gibson. (46)

On May 3, Colonel Dennis placed the 20th Ohio at the head of the brigade as it forced-marched toward Hankinson's Ferry on the Big Black River. Samuel and the regiment camped at the ferry for the next three days, during which time they were often harassed by enemy sniper and long-range artillery fire. (47)

The regiment marched toward Jackson, Mississippi, and on May 12 it arrived in the vicinity of the village of Raymond. A soldier in the 20th Ohio described what occurred next:

After a while, as we were marching quietly along, we heard two gentle pops, which we were able to recognize as gunshots, far on in front. 'Hello, somebody is shooting squirrels,' said one of the boys. 'Pop, pop, pop,' came three more shots in quick succession, but a little nearer. 'The squirrels are shooting back,' growled a burly Irishmen, 'and sure it's meself that don't approve of that kind of squirrel shooting, not a bit of it. (48)

Being the lead regiment of McPherson's Corps, the 20th Ohio deployed as skirmishers and halted. Just after they had begun setting up camp, they were fired upon by a Confederate force hidden in the woods on the opposite side of Fourteen-Mile Creek. Sergeant Osborn Oldroyd of Company E recalled that some of the cooks in the 20th broke for the rear, carrying their utensils with them. (49)

Hiram Granbury
The 20th Ohio formed in line of battle on the right side of the road and charged into the creek, where they lay down on their bellies, using the opposite bank as a natural fortification. Their foe happened to be the famed 7th Texas Infantry, commanded by Colonel Hiram B. Granbury. This regiment had boasted before that day that they had never given way in a battle. "The firing was very hot and close," wrote Colonel Manning Force. Granbury himself later reported that the bitter fight between his 7th Texas and the 20th Ohio was "uninterrupted and terrific." After three hours of intense close-quarters fighting, the 7th Texas retreated from the field. The victorious soldiers of the 20th Ohio won three hearty cheers from the 81st Illinois in recognition of their fine work that day. Samuel lost 10 of his comrades killed and 56 wounded. Captain Harrison Wilson, who had posed for a photograph with this friend, William D. Neal, of Company K, was awarded the 17th Corps Silver Medal of Honor for gallantry at Raymond. (50)

Continuing its march to Jackson, the 17th Corps aided in capturing the city on May 9, but the 20th O.V.I. remained in reserve. (51)

On the morning of May 16, Brigadier-General Leggett returned to the command of his 2nd Brigade just as Logan deployed it in line of battle in a field north of Champion Hill. As the men in the 20th Ohio hugged the ground, Confederate bullets flew thickly overhead, while DeGolyer's 8th Michigan Battery unlimbered behind them and opened up a vigorous fire upon the enemy position. Logan ordered the division to charge the wooded hill, and the 20th Ohio did so successfully. Reaching the other side of Champion Hill, the 20th was suddenly attacked by a large mass of Confederate troops. Though caught in a vicious crossfire, the regiment stood its ground. The enemy abandoned the field at 4:00pm, and the 20th Ohio moved out of the woods and set off on the road to Vicksburg. (52)

Mortimer Leggett
When they arrived east of the city, Churchill and his comrades could see the spires of the churches and the Confederate flag flying over the courthouse in Vicksburg. At 10:00am on May 22, the 20th Ohio received orders to assault the Confederate fort known as the 3rd Louisiana Redan, or "Fort Hill," located along the Jackson Road. Osborn Oldroyd recalled what occurred with Samuel Churchill and the other company cooks:

The boys were expecting the order and were busy divesting themselves of watches, rings, pictures and other keepsakes, which were being placed in the custody of the cooks, who were not expected to go into action. I never saw such a scene before, nor do I ever want to see it again. The instructions left with the keepsakes were varied. For instance, 'This watch I want you to send to my father if I never return' -- 'I am going to Vicksburg, and if I do not get back just send these little trifles home, will you?' -- proper addresses for the sending of the articles being left with them. (53)

The 2nd Brigade charged the Redan, but the attack fell apart quickly. The 20th Ohio managed to get to a point 500 feet from the main parapet, the farthest advance of any regiment in the brigade that day. Pinned the whole day behind the north embankment of the Jackson Road, the men of the 20th Ohio did not move from their position for fear of being shot down if they were to retreat. As sunset came, Samuel and the other cooks were ordered to bring coffee out to the soldiers lying flat against the embankment. Colonel Force recalled that the cooks "succeeded in running the gauntlet, and the garrison could hear the jingling of tincups and shouts of laughter as the cramped men ate their supper." The regiment was pulled out of the road at nightfall. (54)

The 20th Ohio made camp on a steep wooded hillside along the Jackson Road not far behind the Union siege lines. Here they remained under fire daily until the night of May 26, when the regiment marched east on an expedition to find General Joseph E. Johnston's Confederate forces. Moving northward into the Yazoo Valley, the 20th Ohio reached Mechanicsburg, Mississippi, on May 29, and encamped. Seeing no signs of Joe Johnston besides some scattered cavalry detachments, the expedition returned to the trenches at Vicksburg on May 31. (55)

Sergeant Osborn Oldroyd, 20th Ohio, summed up life in the trenches at Vicksburg with one line in his diary: "It is shoot, shoot, dodge, dodge, from morning to night, without cessation, except when we are asleep." Bullets and shells fell around Samuel Churchill throughout each day in the month of June. Samuel carried coffee to the men in Company F as they dug saps and rifle pits for Logan's approach to the 3rd Louisiana Redan. He witnessed the construction of a Union sharpshooter's perch known as the "Coonskin" Tower just in front of the 20th Ohio's camp and siege lines. He watched as a soldier in Company C used wooden mortars to lob grenades into the Confederate earthworks. He also remembered the joy that he and his comrades experienced when they received letters, newspapers, and foods from home. And he saw comrades, like David Harrison Thomas of Company D, killed by stray Rebel bullets. (56)

For 21 days the 20th Ohio lay in siege of Vicksburg along the Jackson Road until, on June 22, the men were again ordered to march east to look for the expected arrival of Joe Johnston's Confederate forces who would come to rescue Pemberton's bottled-up army. The men of the 20th were sorely disappointed. On July 4, 1863, Pemberton surrendered his army to Ulysses S. Grant while Churchill and the regiment lay quietly in camp along the Big Black River near Bovina Station. (57)

Since Manning Force had been promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General in the midst of the Vicksburg siege, the command of the 2nd Brigade divulged upon him when Mortimer Leggett took command of the 1st Brigade of Logan's Division. For the 20th Ohio, Captain Francis Shaklee led the regiment during part of the Vicksburg siege and for some months after. (58)

Since most soldiers considered the assignment of a cook as a "bombproof job" that often drew contempt from comrades, Samuel Churchill most likely wished that he could return to regular duty again. Military records state that he tried to do just that: Samuel Churchill resigned his role as a cook in Company F just after the fall of Vicksburg. Having regained enough strength to perform the regular duty of a foot soldier, Samuel would see how the upcoming campaign to Jackson, Mississippi, would agree with his health. (59)

Samuel marched among his comrades as the 20th Ohio left from Bovina Station, Mississippi, on July 12, 1863, as part of Brigadier-General John McArthur's Provisional Division. Acting as rear guard to Major-General William T. Sherman's forces besieging Joe Johnston's army at Jackson, the regiment reached the old May 14th battleground on July 15 and encamped there. The next day, Joe Johnston abandoned the Mississippi capitol, and the 20th returned to Vicksburg on July 25. (60)

The regiment performed garrison duty along the Jackson Road in Vicksburg for the rest of the summer, except for a reconnaissance made to Monroe, Louisiana, in the last week of August. On the second Tuesday of October, while at Vicksburg, Samuel Churchill participated in the Election of 1863 as Elector Number 31 of 40 in Company F. In this election, 39 men in Company F cast their votes for John Brough as Governor of Ohio. With one vote abstained, Clement Vallandigham received zero votes from Samuel and his comrades. (61)

Having gone through two expeditions as a regular soldier, Samuel accepted the fact that his diseased lungs would hinder him in a rigorous campaign. Before the start of the Canton Expedition, Lieutenant-Colonel John C. Fry, the 20th Ohio's new commander, detailed Samuel Churchill as headquarters cook for the officers' mess. In this new position, Samuel would be able to work close to his good friend, Richard Mitchell, who was then a hostler for Lieutenant-Colonel Fry. Churchill even had an assistant assigned to him to perform the harder manual chores. Although the job was still contemptible in the eyes of the fighting men in his regiment, Samuel may have realized that the headquarters cook was at least a position of honor compared to the company cook! He would remain in this assignment for the rest of the war. (62)

The 20th Ohio was ordered to march out on the Jackson Road on October 14, 1863, in what would become known as the Canton Expedition. Traveling with the headquarters wagon, Samuel Churchill followed along with his regiment as they reached Bogue Chitto Creek east of Brownsville, Mississippi, on October 16. On the next day, Churchill watched as the 20th Ohio advanced in line of battle and drove William Jackson's Rebel cavalry from a ridge. After feinting toward Canton, Mississippi, the Union force fell back to the safety of the west bank of the Big Black River. (63)

From October 15, 1863, until February 3, 1864, the 20th Ohio spent the winter as part of the garrison performing guard duty at Vicksburg, Mississippi. When re-enlistment time arrived in January of 1864, Samuel Churchill, along with two-thirds of the regiment, volunteered for another three-years of service. At the age of 21, Samuel Churchill signed his name to this enlistment document for Company F, 20th Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry. Captain Harry Wilson, the officer who had distinguished himself at Raymond, witnessed the signing. Under General Orders 191, Churchill became a "veteran volunteer," which allowed him the privilege of a 30-day furlough and a bounty of $30 per month. (64)

Samuel's brother-in-law, Corporal John C. Stipp, did not re-enlist with Company F. John's wife, Anna, who was also Samuel's sister, had been suffering to keep the Stipp farm going back in Sidney. Although the Shelby County Board for Relief for Destitute Families of Volunteer Soldiers provided aid to Anna in the form of $2.00 a month, it was not enough for her to live on. John most likely felt he needed to return to his wife to take care of her. (65)

On February 3, 1864, Samuel Churchill crossed the Big Black River with his regiment to begin Sherman's Meridian Expedition into central Mississippi. Two days later near Bolton, the 20th Ohio engaged William H. Jackson's cavalry in a long-range firefight and artillery duel. The Confederates were driven back, and pursuing the enemy rapidly to Clinton, Mississippi, the regiment met Jackson's cavalry arrayed for battle upon a high ridge two miles east of town. Samuel most likely saw his comrades as they charged the ridge and pushed the Confederates back toward Jackson, Mississippi. During the campaign, Samuel traveled over 350 miles in 31 days, during which time the 20th Ohio helped to destroy 24 miles of track, 52 railroad bridges, 4000 feet of trestle work, 10 train cars, and 3 steam mills. (66)

A Changed Man in Georgia

Twelve days after the conclusion of the Meridian Campaign, Samuel Churchill was sent home on furlough on March 16, 1864. Having been away from his family and his hometown for almost two and one-half years, Samuel returned to Ohio a veteran and a changed man. The 20th Ohio arrived in Sidney on March 28, where Jacob S. Conklin, Esquire, gave an informal speech of appreciation while the men stood at attention in front of Carey's Hall on the square. (67)

After spending a month on his grandfather William's farm, talking over his war experiences, Samuel Churchill boarded the 2 o'clock train bound for Camp Dennison on April 27, 1864. As a crowd waved good-bye, many of the soldiers carried with them the "sweet memory" of their days of furlough. (68)

The 20th Ohio Veteran Volunteer Infantry rendezvoused at Camp Dennison, Ohio, on April 29, and traveling via railroad and steamer, the regiment reached Clifton, Tennessee, on May 14. From there it was forced-marched 304 miles until it arrived at Acworth, Georgia, on June 8, as Sherman's armies faced Joe Johnston's entrenchments on Pine Mountain and Brush Mountain. Two days later, the 20th Ohio, as a member of Colonel Robert K. Scott's Brigade in Leggett's Division of the 17th Corps, moved to Sherman's extreme left flank. From June 11 - 17, the regiment engaged in constant skirmishing in front of the Confederate earthworks on Busbee Ridge, a spur of Brush Mountain located southeast of Big Shanty, Georgia. Similar to the Vicksburg siege, Samuel Churchill came under fire daily, and he often had to "run the gauntlet" to provide food for the officers. (69)

As the Confederate army fell back to the Kennesaw Mountain line, Sherman's army stretched further to the east near Marietta, Georgia. On June 26, while on the skirmish line with Company K near Kennesaw Mountain, Captain William D. Neal of Sidney, Ohio, was killed by a Confederate sharpshooter's bullet. Neal became the highest-ranking officer from the 20th Ohio to be killed during the war. Samuel had served Neal many times before in the officers' mess; now, he mourned with the rest of the regiment in the loss of one their beloved leaders. William Neal's close friends, Harry Wilson and John C. Fry, wrote eulogies for their comrade as the citizens of Sidney remembered its fallen hero. (70)

On June 27 the 20th Ohio unsuccessfully assaulted the Confederate earthworks along the Bell's Ferry Road north of Marietta. Skirmishing continued here until July 2, when McPherson's Army of the Tennessee marched south through Marietta and Smryna to the Chattahootchie River. Positioning themselves on the enemy's extreme left flank, the 20th Ohio skirmished daily from July 5 - 9 with Confederate pickets spread out along the southern bank of the Chattahootchie River. Samuel's camp here was shelled by enemy artillery every day until July 16, when McPherson moved the Army of the Tennessee northeast to cross the Chattahootchie River. (71)

After marching from Decatur, Georgia, the 20th Ohio encamped at Bald Hill, a dominating eminence two miles east of Atlanta. On the morning of July 22, 1864, Samuel Churchill was in camp with his regiment about 300 yards south of the hill. The morning had been unusually calm, and there were unconfirmed reports coming in that John Bell Hood's Rebel army was abandoning Atlanta. By 10:00am the men finished building their earthworks 10 yards west of and parallel to the Atlanta-McDonough Road. At around 12:30pm, while Samuel and his comrades rested and ate their lunch in the woods to the rear of their fortifications, a shot suddenly rang out from the southeast. The firing became louder and more general as it seemed to approach ominously closer to their camp. (72)

"Fall in! Fall in!" yelled the officers, and the men took up their Enfield rifles and formed in line behind the trenches. Samuel Churchill most likely remained in the woods near the regimental headquarters, but he would not stay there long. Less than twenty minutes later, a flock of stragglers, mostly Iowa troops, came running pell-mell out of the woods from the south, and the Confederates were close at their heels! Colonel John C. Fry tried in vain to rally the Iowans, but they would not stop for anything. The "Johnnies were coming through the woods like a storm," recalled Captain Edmund E. Nutt of Company A. Texas troops from Pat Cleburne's Confederate division had enveloped the 4th Division of the Union 17th Corps and had managed to move directly into the left flank and rear of the 20th Ohio's line. With a rebel yell, the enemy line struck, "literally walking over our left companies," remembered Nutt. (73)

All at once, the men in the 20th Ohio jumped over from the east side of their trenches to the west side to meet the threat in their rear. Letting the Texans get to within 10 yards of them, the 20th Ohio let loose a volley, and the "magnificent line of the enemy was gone." The enemy quickly renewed the attack from the west side, or front, of the trenches. The 20th Ohio jumped back over the parapet and fired a volley that tore the second Confederate assault to pieces. After a 20-minute lull, Cleburne again attacked the 20th Ohio's rear from the east, and after jumping over to the west side of their earthworks, the regiment again repulsed the Confederates. Colonel Fry was wounded. The Rebel line came from the west in another charge, forcing the 20th Ohio to climb over the entrenchments for a fourth time and, for the fourth time, repulsed the enemy, whose dead lay in heaps upon the ground. Lieutenant Henry Otis Dwight said that the men "looked for all the word like a long line of these toy-monkeys you see which jump over the end of a stick." (74)

When the third Confederate assault wave came, the brave men in the 20th Ohio found themselves nearly out of ammunition. Three soldiers volunteered to run the gauntlet to get the ammunition boxes lying in the woods near regimental headquarters; two men made it back, the third was captured. The Rebel line rushed into their rear, and the Union soldiers jumped over their parapet and fought the enemy with bayonets, clubbed rifles, swords, and fists. As the Confederates climbed over the fortifications, men on either side of the parapet would be pulled over by the hair or by the arms and made prisoner. A Confederate colonel was shot just as he grabbed the flag of the 20th Ohio, and a desperate fight for the colors of the 78th Ohio ensued. The two Elliott brothers of Company F died in succession as they tried to bring the 78th Ohio banner to safety. Charley Stevenson of Company F dodged the bullets, grabbed the flag, ran back to the trenches, and planted it into the parapet, yelling, "There 78th, there are your colors, now protect them!" (75)

At 5 o'clock, the Confederates brought a captured cannon to bear and placed it fifty yards from the 20th's flank. As the cannon opened up with canister, the men in blue reeled, but held. However, when the 78th Ohio retreated north, the 20th Ohio became surrounded, and had to fight its way out of the Confederate trap. The regiment retreated to Bald Hill, where it formed a defensive line perpendicular to Force's 1st Brigade. Exhausted from their five-hour fight, some men fell asleep amidst the battle on Bald Hill, soon to be renamed Leggett's Hill. The 20th Ohio stubbornly held their second position on Bald Hill until nightfall brought an end to the fighting. (76)

The 20th Ohio tallied its losses -- 33 killed, 49 wounded, and 56 missing (138 total out of 325 engaged), the largest loss in Scott's 2nd Brigade. On the other side, Leggett's burial details counted 900 dead Rebels in front of the division's position at Bald Hill and nearly 1000 dead Confederates lying in the area where the first five hours of fighting had occurred. The toll in officers in Leggett's Division was equally telling: Brigadier-General Robert Scott was captured, Brigadier-General Manning Force was seriously wounded, and Colonel John Fry was wounded. Most of all, the army, especially the men of the 17th Corps, mourned the death of Major-General James McPherson, who had been killed less than half a mile in the rear of the 20th's camp. Lieutenant-Colonel Greenbury F. Wiles took command of the 2nd Brigade, while Major Francis Shaklee filled in as commander of the 20th Ohio. (77)

On July 26 the regiment marched around to the west of Atlanta, and following the Battle of Ezra Church on July 28, it settled into the Siege of Atlanta. For 29 days and nights, Samuel Churchill remained under fire as the 20th Ohio engaged the enemy in trench warfare. Churchill supplied coffee to the officers three times a day while the men lay in their earthworks. (78)

Major-General O. O. Howard, the commander of the Army of the Tennessee, ordered his troops to march west toward Sandtown, Georgia, on the night of August 26, 1864. Arriving at Sandtown on August 28, the 20th Ohio guarded the wagon trains and helped destroy the track of the Atlanta & West Point Railroad. Moving south toward Jonesboro, Georgia, the regiment formed in reserve to Bryant's 1st Brigade during the Battle of Jonesboro on August 31, during which time the men were exposed to the enemy's heavy artillery fire. Hood's army abandoned Atlanta that night. The next day Samuel and his comrades moved southeast toward Lovejoy's Station, Georgia, where they found Hood's army entrenched upon the hills a mile north of town. After capturing a hill from Confederate pickets, the 20th Ohio skirmished daily until the 2nd Brigade was relieved on September 5. The Atlanta Campaign was over. (79)

Two days later the regiment marched north and encamped at Atlanta for a month. Corporal John C. Stipp of Company F bid farewell to his brother-in-law Samuel Churchill on October 2 when John's term of enlistment expired. Having no relatives close by, Samuel was now completely on his own. (80)

On the next day, the 20th Ohio joined in the chase of Hood's army to Gaylesville, Alabama, where Sherman stopped the army and turned back for Atlanta. The 20th returned to Smyrna on November 5, 1864, and made camp. While at Smyrna Camp Ground, the Samuel and his companions voted in the 1864 Presidential Election. (81)

Before the beginning of the March to the Sea, Sherman ordered all of the surgeons to conduct physical examinations of every man with a history of illness. Any man unable to bear a long march would be sent north and reassigned. Churchill must have survived this examination, as he was allowed to stay with his beloved 20th Ohio for the March to the Sea. The new leader of the regiment, Captain Harrison Wilson, soon to be Colonel, retained Samuel as headquarters cook for the officers' mess. (82)

Samuel Churchill witnessed the burning of Atlanta on the night of November 15, 1864, and listened to the glorious music of the regimental bands playing "John's Brown's Body" as the army marched southeast on what was "probably the most gigantic pleasure expedition ever planned," remarked a soldier in Howard's ranks. (83)

Reaching McDonough, Georgia, on November 17, the regiment moved southeast, destroying the railroad from Station #14 to Irwin's Crossroads. Samuel saw his comrades become experts at making "Sherman's Hairpins" from the rails and ties of the Milledgeville & Savannah Railroad. The 20th Ohio arrived in the village of Riddleville, Georgia, on November 28, where they camped for two days. They continued the march to Millen, Georgia, where on December 3, the 20th Ohio was personally directed by General Sherman to destroy the train depot, hotel, and tracks in the town. In an official order from Sherman, it ordered the 20th Ohio to destroy the tracks in Millen in a way "more devilish than can be dreamed of, " perhaps in retribution for the privations that had been suffered by Union prisoners at Camp Lawton. Pressing on through Scarboro and Cameron, on December 10 the regiment stopped in front of the Confederate entrenchments along the Augusta Road about three and one-half miles from Savannah, Georgia. Here they skirmished with the enemy for most of the day before being relieved by the 20th Corps. (84)

On December 11, Samuel Churchill and the regiment marched 2 miles south and dug in along the north side of the Darien Road. They skirmished from December 13 -18 with the Georgia Militia, who held the formidable Piney Point Battery in front of the 20th Ohio. During a heavy bombardment on December 13, Churchill witnessed the mortal wounding of Sergeant Ohio Brown, Co. I, and Private John Shaw, Co. F, from shells that fell into their camp along the Darien Road. On the 19th the regiment left the siege lines on detached duty to build pontoon bridges and wharves at King's Bridge on the Ogeechee River. While engaged in this task, the Confederates abandoned Savannah on December 21, ending the March to the Sea. (85)

Samuel and his comrades-in-arms were placed into camp near Fort Number 3, located 4 miles west of Savannah and just north of the Augusta Road. In this camp the 20th Ohio remained until January 4, 1865. Some of the men wrote in their diaries about how beautiful and large the city of Savannah was, and how warm the weather seemed at the time. (86)

Into the Carolinas

On January 5, 1865, the 20th Ohio took the steamer Fanny on the Atlantic Ocean, the first time Samuel had seen the ocean. The steamer landed at Beaufort, South Carolina, and the regiment marched off toward Pocotaligo, South Carolina. On January 14, the 20th Ohio charged through swamps and captured two separate Confederate defensive lines in rapid succession. Samuel camped at Pocotaligo for 13 days, during which time the regiment received 76 draftees. Mortimer Leggett resigned at Pocotaligo, and Manning Force took command of the 3rd Division, 17th Corps. (87)

The regiment started on the Campaign through the Carolinas from Pocotaligo on January 20, 1865. Marching to Whippy Swamp, on February 2 the regiment helped to capture Barker's Mills and the bridge over Jackson Branch. That night, Force's Division joined the rest of the Corps encamped at Rivers' Bridge. The one and one-half mile long causeway over the Big Salkehatchie River was heavily defended by Evander McClaws's Confederate forces entrenched on the north side of the river. The 20th Ohio remained in reserve as the Battle of Rivers' Bridge (February 3) raged, but after the Confederates retreated, the regiment crossed over the causeway on February 5. (88)

The 20th reached the south bank of the North Edisto River near Orangeburg, South Carolina, on February 11. The 20th Ohio soldiers distinguished themselves in a gallant charge that saved the bridge at Orangeburg from destruction. After the capture of Orangeburg, Samuel and the 20th moved toward Columbia, South Carolina, and arrived there on February 17, 1865. Meeting no resistance, the regiment marched freely into Columbia. This was after the flames had destroyed two-thirds of the city. The regiment encamped north of the city in what is currently a park. (89)

Marching and tearing up track along the way, the 20th Ohio continued through Cheraw and Bennettsville, South Carolina. Almost continual rains caused the march to become slow and agonizing as the muddy roads bogged down wagons and artillery. Passing through Fayetteville, North Carolina, on March 13, the regiment encamped at Mt. Olive, North Carolina, on March 19. (90)

That night, word reached the regiment that Joe Johnston had attacked Slocum's Left Wing at Bentonville, North Carolina. The regiment marched to the battlefield on March 20, arriving at about 4:30pm, and made camp. The next morning, the 20th Ohio advanced to the east side of the Sam Howell Branch ravine and entrenched just south of what is today SR1199. Samuel Churchill and his comrades were under fire throughout the day. (91)

The regiment proceeded to Goldsboro, North Carolina, and encamped there from March 24 through April 9. General Sherman reviewed the army in Goldsboro before it headed west on April 10, 1865, the day after Lee's surrender to Grant. (92)

The men in the 20th Ohio corduroyed roads near Pine Level, North Carolina on April 11. Due to heavy rains, Howard's Right Wing did not reach Raleigh until April 14. As they marched past the state capitol building, Sherman reviewed the troops. The 20th Ohio encamped on the west side of the city. (93)

While at Raleigh during the month of April, the men received the terrible news of Lincoln's assassination. They spent that day in their tents "silent in the gloom of grief and brooding wrath upon the tidings of the death of Lincoln." On April 25, Sherman's army moved out of Raleigh to attack Joe Johnston's forces. The next day, Joe Johnston surrendered to Sherman. When the men in the 20th Ohio heard of the surrender, "the men seemed crazy with joy; they shouted, laughed, flung their hats in the air, threw their knapsacks at each other, hugged each other, stood on their heads in the mud, and were fairly mad with delight." The war was over! (94)

After participating in the Grand Review in Washington on May 24, the regiment was sent by rail to Louisville, Kentucky, where it remained in camp until July 9. On Independence Day, Sherman wished farewell to the old 2nd Brigade. The regiment had marched a total of 3,216 miles and had traveled 4,137 miles by rail or by steamer. It had fought in 32 battles and skirmishes, losing a total of 2 officers and 60 men killed in battle and 218 men died of wounds or disease, for a total of 360. It had been a long, hard road. (95)

Samuel and his comrades were sent to Camp Chase, Ohio, on July 16, and were officially mustered out of the army there on July 18, 1865. For Samuel, soldiering was at an end. (96)

Coming Home

Returning home to Sidney, Samuel found that his family had changed just as much as he had. His brother, Willie, had joined the ranks of the 134th Ohio Infantry in 1864 and had come home a veteran. Samuel's father Charles had married a 20-year old woman named Caroline Kain in February 1865, and she was pregnant with Charles's next child. Samuel's new step-mom was younger than he. (97)

In 1866, Samuel met Mary Ann Wateman of Port Jefferson, Ohio, and married her on August 27 of that year. She bore him his first child, a son named George, on November 20, 1867. In order to support his family, Samuel had to find work that would not test the endurance of his damaged lungs. Since Samuel's close friend from the war, Richard Mitchell, owned the Sidney Buss [sic] Line and Mail Carrier in Sidney, it is believed that Samuel took a position as a mail carrier and deliveryman. Samuel's experience with driving the headquarters wagon during the war had paid off in his civilian life! (98)

In August of 1869, Mary Ann gave birth to an infant who died soon after. One month later, on September 20, 1869, Samuel's wife died. She was buried in Port Jefferson. Distraught at the loss, and unable care for his child, Samuel left his baby son George with his brother-in-law, William Wateman, who adopted George into the Wateman family. (99)

. On December 14, 1875, 33-year old Samuel Churchill married Caroline Shaw of Lima, Ohio. Samuel's father gave them a parcel of the Sidney farm. Unfortunately, Caroline Shaw had to care for her mother in Lima, so Samuel sold his parcel of land and left Sidney with his new bride. (100)

As a resident of Lima, Ohio, Samuel Churchill continued his work as a teamster. On May 26, 1876, Samuel and Caroline were blessed with a baby girl they named Rosanna. The Churchill's would have four more children in their lifetime: Ella May Churchill, born in 1878; Charles Edward Churchill, born in 1880; Rollie Nelson Churchill, born in 1883; and David William Churchill, born in 1887. (101)

An Old Soldier Dies

In 1889 Samuel and Caroline lived with their children in a house at 1106 East High Street in Lima, Ohio. It is unknown whether or not Samuel attended the 20th Ohio Reunions that often were held in Sidney and Lima, but he did join the Union Veteran Union organization in Lima sometime in the late 1880's. The U.V.U., a G.A.R. spin-off, only accepted members who had served in the Union army for no less than six months. In April 1889, Samuel filed for a military service pension on account of his lung disability. He gathered signed affidavits from his friends and neighbors, including one from his former messmate, Richard Mitchell. As Samuel waited for the pension to be approved, tragedy struck in his life once more when his little son Rollie died at the age of six on December 9, 1889. (102)

Samuel's frequent attacks of lung fever, which caused him to have violent coughing fits in the mornings and nights, took their toll on his health. Samuel was granted his military pension in early 1891, and he received his first money from it on March 4th. Four days later, at the age of 48 years and 3 months, Samuel S. Churchill died of consumption at his home in Lima. Civil War comrades attended his funeral. He was buried in the Old Lima City Cemetery on March 9. The same day, Samuel's death made the front page of the Lima Daily Times. (103)

One can only wonder at what Samuel Churchill's life would have been like had the Civil War not been a part of it. The conflict certainly had changed him, and eventually it killed him, but Samuel must have felt a special pride for the regiment in which he had served. Long after the war had ended, Manning Force addressed the survivors of the regiment with these words: "The 20th Ohio was never taken by surprise, was never thrown into confusion, never gave back under fire; it took every point it was ordered to take, and held every position it was ordered to hold.... Bless the survivors of that gallant band. It is worth more than pensions or money to be able to say: 'and I too belonged to the Twentieth Ohio.'" (104)

Footnotes

(1) Rosanna (Churchill) Hall's Date Book; Map Pttl-13: Premises in Vicinity of Cobbs Corner, Parsippany-Troy Hills Township, Morris County, New Jersey (1795-1902); Map of Morris County, New Jersey (from Original Surveys), 1853; State of New Jersey, Morris County Deed Books B-4, C-4, D-4, F-2, G-3, L-2, and W-2.
(2) State of New Jersey, Wills, Morris County, New Jersey: Jacob Van Ness; Harriet Stryker-Rodda, Some Early Records of Morris County, New Jersey, 1740-1799 (Morristown, New Jersey); United States Census Bureau, Fifth Census of the United States, 1830, Morris County, New Jersey; State of New Jersey, Morris County Deed Books G-3, L-2, and W-2.
(3) United States Census Bureau, Seventh Census of the United States, 1850, Clinton Township, Shelby County, Ohio; C. O. Titus, Titus' Atlas of Shelby County, Ohio (Philadelphia, 1875); State of Indiana, Union County Deed Books L, M, and O; Union County, Indiana, 1884 Atlas of Union County, Indiana; Rosanna (Churchill) Hall's Date Book.
(4) Cemetery Records of New Hope Cemetery, Union County, Indiana.
(5) Ruth Slevin, Union County, Indiana, Marriages 1821-1859; State of Indiana, Union County Deed Book O; United States Census Bureau, Eighth Census of the United States, 1860, Clinton Township, Shelby County, Ohio.
(6) Lima Weekly Gazette, August 7, 1861; Military Service Records of Samuel S. Churchill; Roster Commission of Ohio, Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War of the Rebellion -- 1861-1866, vol. 2 (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1888), p. 704; C.O. Titus, Titus' Atlas of Shelby County, Ohio (Philadelphia, 1875); Henry Otis Dwight Papers, pp. 5-7.
(7) Information from the Shelby County Historical Society; Sidney Journal, June 18, 1909; Roster Commission of Ohio, Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War of the Rebellion -- 1861-1866, vol. 2 (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1888), p. 704.
(8) Military Service Records of Samuel S. Churchill; A.B.C. Hitchcock, History of Shelby County, Ohio, and Representative Citizens (Chicago, 1973), p. 278; United States Census Bureau, Eighth Census of the United States, 1860, Clinton Township, Shelby County, Ohio.
(9) Henry Otis Dwight Papers, pp. 7-8; Albert Castel, "The War Album of Henry Dwight, Part I," Civil War Times, Illustrated 18 (February 1980), p. 12.
(10) Samuel S. Churchill's 1864 Volunteer Enlistment; Military Service Records of Samuel S. Churchill; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, pp. 7-8.
(11) OR, I, 51, Supplement, pp. 504-505; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, pp. 7, 9-11; Osborn H. Oldroyd, A Soldier's Story of the Siege of Vicksburg (Springfield, Illinois, 1885), p. 5.
(12) D.W. Wood, History of the 20th O.V.V.I. Regiment, and Proceedings of the First Reunion at Mt. Vernon, Ohio, April 6th, 1876 (Columbus, Ohio, 1876), pp. 5, 15, 40; Charles Whittlesey, War Memoranda: Cheat River to the Tennessee, 1861-1862 (Cleveland, Ohio, 1884), pp. 1-4; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 17.
(13) Stewart Sifakis, Who Was Who in the Civil War (New York, 1988), p. 223; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 9.
(14) Ibid., pp. 9-10.
(15) Ibid., pp. 10-11.
(16) OR, I, 51, Supplement, pp. 505; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 10; David Harrison Thomas Papers, "Cincinnati Barracks, Jan. 18, 1862."
(17) OR, I, 51, Supplement, p. 505; C.O. Titus, Titus' Atlas of Hamilton County, Ohio (Philadelphia, 1869); Geoffrey R. Walden, "The General's Tour: Panic on the Ohio! Confederates March on Cincinnati, September 1862, Part IV: Defenses of Cincinnati," Blue & Gray 3 (April-May, 1986); David Harrison Thomas Papers, "Cincinnati Barracks, Jan. 18, 1862."
(18)A.B.C. Hitchcock, History of Shelby County, Ohio, and Representative Citizens (Chicago, 1973), p. 272; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 11.
(19) Ibid., pp. 11-12.
(20) Ibid., pp. 13.
(21) Ibid. , 13-14; D.W. Wood, History of the 20th O.V.V.I. Regiment, and Proceedings of the First Reunion at Mt. Vernon, Ohio, April 6th, 1876 (Columbus, Ohio, 1876), p. 42.
(22) Henry Otis Dwight Papers, pp. 14-15.
(23) Ibid., pp. 15-16; OR, I, 51, Supplement, p. 506.
(24) Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 16; OR, I, 51, Supplement, pp. 506-507, 513.
(25) Ibid., p. 507, 514; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, pp. 16-17.
(26) OR, I, 10, pt. 1, p. 169; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 17.
(27) Ibid., p. 17; OR, I, 10, pt. 1, p. 172.
(28) Ibid., p. 201; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 17.
(29) OR, I, 10, pt. 1, pp. 200-202; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, pp. 17-18.
(30) OR, I, 10, pt. 1, pp. 200-201; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 18; David Harrison Thomas Papers, "Pittsburg, Tenn., April 22, 1862."
(31) Stewart Sifakis, Who Was Who in the Civil War (New York, 1988), p. 223; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 19; Military Service Records of Samuel S. Churchill.
(32) A.B.C. Hitchcock, History of Shelby County, Ohio, and Representative Citizens (Chicago, 1973), p. 272; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 21.
(33) Military Service Records of Samuel S. Churchill; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, pp. 21-22.
(34) OR, I, 51, Supplement, pp. 515-516; Pension Records of Samuel S. Churchill.
(35)Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 23.
(36) OR, I, 16, pt. 1, pp. 44-52; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 23.
(37) OR, I, 17, pt. 1, pp. 118-119; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, pp. 24-25.
(38) Whitelaw Reid, Ohio in the War, vol. 2 (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1868), p. 142.
(39) Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 27; OR, I, 51, Supplement, p. 518.
(40) Pension Records of Samuel S. Churchill; Information from the Holly Springs Historical Society.
(41) OR, I, 17, pt. 1, pp. 510-511.
(42) Pension Records of Samuel S. Churchill; Military Service Records of Samuel S. Churchill; Charles W. Wills, Army Life of an Illinois Soldier: Including a Day-by-Day Record of Sherman's March to the Sea -- Letters and Diary of Charles W. Wills (Carbondale, Illinois, 1996), p. 182; A.B.C. Hitchcock, History of Shelby County, Ohio, and Representative Citizens (Chicago, 1973), p. 273.
(43)Ibid., p. 273; Henry Otis Dwight, p. 29; Sidney Journal, February 6, 1863; D.W. Wood, History of the 20th O.V.V.I. Regiment, and Proceedings of the First Reunion at Mt. Vernon, Ohio, April 6th, 1876 (Columbus, Ohio, 1876), p. 19.
(44) Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 31; A.B.C. Hitchcock, History of Shelby County, Ohio, and Representative Citizens (Chicago, 1973), p. 273; D.W. Wood, History of the 20th O.V.V.I. Regiment, and Proceedings of the First Reunion at Mt. Vernon, Ohio, April 6th, 1876 (Columbus, Ohio, 1876), p. 20; Sidney Journal, February 27, 1863.
(45) OR, I, 51, pt. 1, p. 520; Military Records of Samuel S. Churchill; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 32; Manning F. Force, Personal Recollections of the Vicksburg Campaign (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1885), pp. 4-5.
(46) Ibid., p. 6; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 3; OR, I, 24, pt. 1, p. 650.
(47) D.W. Wood, History of the 20th O.V.V.I. Regiment, and Proceedings of the First Reunion at Mt. Vernon, Ohio, April 6th, 1876 (Columbus, Ohio, 1876), p. 20; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 3; OR, I, 24, pt. 1, p. 645.
(48) Ibid., p. 705; National Tribune, November 21, 1886.
(49) OR, I, 24, pt. 1, pp. 714-715; Osborn H. Oldroyd, A Soldier's Story of the Siege of Vicksburg (Springfield, Illinois, 1885), p. 19.
(50) OR, I, 24, pt. 1, pp. 704-705, 714-715, 747-748; A.B.C. Hitchcock, History of Shelby County, Ohio, and Representative Citizens (Chicago, 1973), p. 273.
(51) OR, I, 24, pt. 1, p. 646; Manning F. Force, Personal Recollections of the Vicksburg Campaign (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1885), p. 9.
(52) OR, I, 24, pt. 1, pp. 647-648; Osborn H. Oldroyd, A Soldier's Story of the Siege of Vicksburg (Springfield, Illinois, 1885), pp. 22-23, 25; Whitelaw Reid, Ohio in the War vol. 2 (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1868), p. 142.
(53) Osborn H. Oldroyd, A Soldier's Story of the Siege of Vicksburg (Springfield, Illinois, 1885), pp. 30-31.
(54) OR, I, 24, pt. 2, pp. 295-296; OR, I, 24, pt. 1, pp. 710-711; Manning F. Force, Personal Recollections of the Vicksburg Campaign (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1885), p. 12.
(55) Ibid., p. 12; Osborn H. Oldroyd, A Soldier's Story of the Siege of Vicksburg (Springfield, Illinois, 1885), pp. 37-38; OR, I, 24, pt. 2, p. 435.
(56) Osborn H. Oldroyd, A Soldier's Story of the Siege of Vicksburg (Springfield, Illinois, 1885), pp. 30, 35, 43, 53; Edwin C. Bearss, "The Vicksburg Mines: They Shook Up Confederate Defenders But Didn't Produce a Breakthrough," Civil War Times 3 (July 1961), pp. 4-5; Manning F. Force, Personal Recollections of the Vicksburg (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1885), p. 14; David Harrison Thomas Papers.
(57) Osborn H. Oldroyd, A Soldier's Story of the Siege of Vicksburg (Springfield, Illinois, 1885), pp. 63-64, 66.
(58) Roster Commission of Ohio, Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War of the Rebellion -- 1861-1866, vol. 2 (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1888), p. 685; OR, I, 24, pt. 2, p. 653.
(59) James M. McPherson, For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War (New York, 1997), pp. 6-7; Military Records of Samuel S. Churchill.
(60) E. Chris Evans, "The General's Tour: Return to Jackson, July 5-25, 1863 -- Finishing Stroke to the Vicksburg Campaign," Blue & Gray13 (August 1995), pp. 57-58; OR, I, 51, Supplement, p. 520; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 3.
(61) Ibid., p. 3; OR, I, 26, pt. 1, pp. 248-249; OR, I, 51, Supplement, p. 521; Paul Laurence Dunbar Special Collections, Shelby County Poll Books and Tally Sheets -- Soldiers' Vote, 1863.
(62) Military Records of Samuel S. Churchill; Henry O. Dwight, "How We Fight at Atlanta," Harpers New Monthly Magazine 29 (October 1864), p. 666; Pension Records of Samuel S. Churchill.
(63) Manning F. Force Papers, "Apr. 9, 1865"; OR, I, 30, pt. 2, pp. 802-804, 809; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 3.
(64) Ibid., p. 3; ; A.B.C. Hitchcock, History of Shelby County, Ohio, and Representative Citizens (Chicago, 1973), p. 273; Samuel S. Churchill's 1864 Volunteer Enlistment; Military Service Records of Samuel S. Churchill.
(65) Roster Commission of Ohio, Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War of the Rebellion -- 1861-1866, vol. 2 (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1888), p. 704; Paul Laurence Dunbar Special Collections, Shelby County Relief Fund Ledger.
(66) Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 3; OR, I, 32, pt. 1, pp. 208-210, 212, 235, 371-375.
(67) Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 3; Sidney Journal, March 25, 1864; Ibid., April 1, 1864.
(68) Ibid., June 10, 1864.
(69) OR, I, 38, pt. 3, pp. 572-573; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 3; Sidney Journal, June 24, 1864; Military Service Records of Samuel S. Churchill.
(70) Sidney Journal , July 15, 1864; Military Service Records of Samuel S. Churchill.
(71) OR, I, 38, pt. 3, pp. 573, 552, 563; Ibid., pp. 19, 573; Sidney Journal, August 3, 1864.
(72) Ronald H. Bailey and Editors of Time-Life Books, The Civil War: Battles for Atlanta - Sherman Moves East (Alexandria, Virginia, 1985), pp. 91-96; Sidney Journal, August 19, 1864; New York Times, August 12, 1864; National Tribune January 3, 1884.
(73) Ibid.
(74) Ronald H. Bailey and Editors of Time-Life Books, The Civil War: Battles for Atlanta - Sherman Moves East (Alexandria, Virginia, 1985), pp. 100-113; National Tribune, January 3, 1884; OR, I, 38, pt. 3, pp. 564-566; New York Times, August 12, 1864; Henry O. Dwight, "How We Fight at Atlanta," Harpers New Monthly Magazine 29 (October 1864), p. 665.
(75) National Tribune, January 3, 1884; New York Times, August 12, 1864; Whitelaw Reid, Ohio in the War, vol. 2 (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1868), p. 144; Henry O. Dwight, "How We Fight at Atlanta," Harpers New Monthly Magazine 29 (October 1864), p. 666; D.W. Wood, History of the 20th O.V.V.I. Regiment, and Proceedings of the First Reunion at Mt. Vernon, Ohio, April 6th, 1876 (Columbus, Ohio, 1876), p. 25; Sidney Journal, August 5, 1864.
(76) A.B.C. Hitchcock, History of Shelby County, Ohio, and Representative Citizens (Chicago, 1973), p. 274; National Tribune, January 3, 1884; OR, I, 38, pt. 3, pp. 564-566.
(77) OR, I, 38, pt.3, pp. 29, 548, 572-573; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 4; OR, I, 38, pt. 1, p. 109.
(78) Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 4; OR, I, 38, pt. 3, pp. 567, 573.
(79) Ibid. , p. 567-568, 574; Ronald H. Bailey and Editors of Time-Life Books, The Civil War: Battles for Atlanta - Sherman Moves East (Alexandria, Virginia, 1985), pp. 141-142, 151-152; A.B.C. Hitchcock, History of Shelby County, Ohio, and Representative Citizens (Chicago, 1973), p. 274; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 4.
(80) Ibid., p. 4; Roster Commission of Ohio, Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War of the Rebellion -- 1861-1866, vol. 2 (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1888), p. 704.
(81) David Nevin and Editors of Time-Life Books, The Civil War: Sherman's March - Atlanta to the Sea (Alexandria, Virginia, 1986), pp. 19-20, 28, 32; OR, I, 44, pt. 1, p. 34; Paul Laurence Dunbar Special Collections, Shelby County Poll Books and Tally Sheets -- Soldiers' Vote, 1864.
(82) David Nevin and Editors of Time-Life Books, The Civil War: Sherman's March - Atlanta to the Sea (Alexandria, Virginia, 1986), p. 44; Military Service Records of Samuel S. Churchill.
(83) David Nevin and Editors of Time-Life Books, The Civil War: Sherman's March - Atlanta to the Sea (Alexandria, Virginia, 1986), pp. 14, 47, 54.
(84) Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 4; Sidney Journal, January 5, 1865; OR, I, 44, pt. 1, pp. 148, 523-623.
(85) Ibid., pp. 35, 148-153, 747; Sidney Journal, January 13, 1865; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 4.
(86) OR, I, 44, pt. 1, p. 35; OR, I, 47, pt. 1, p. 192; Sidney Journal, January 13, 1865; Thomas H. Smith Papers, "Savannah, Ga., Dec. 20, 1864."
(87) Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 4; A.B.C. Hitchcock, History of Shelby County, Ohio, and Representative Citizens (Chicago, 1973), p. 274; OR, I, 47, pt. 1, pp. 192-193, 1133; Sidney Journal, May 19, 1865.
(88) Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 4; OR, I, 47, pt. 1, pp. 375-377, 405-406.
(89) OR, I, 47, pt. 1, pp. 197-199, 378-379, 406-407; D.W. Wood, History of the 20th O.V.V.I. Regiment, and Proceedings of the First Reunion at Mt. Vernon, Ohio, April 6th, 1876 (Columbus, Ohio, 1876), pp. 27-28.
(90) OR, I, 47, pt. 1, pp. 381-382, 409.
(91) Ibid., pp. 381-383; Major George B. Davis and Leslie J. Perry, The Official Military Atlas of the Civil War (New York, 1983).
(92) OR, I, 47, pt. 1, pp. 209-211, 383-384.
(93) Ibid., pp. 210-211.
(94) D.W. Wood, History of the 20th O.V.V.I. Regiment, and Proceedings of the First Reunion at Mt. Vernon, Ohio, April 6th, 1876 (Columbus, Ohio, 1876), pp. 30-31; Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 4; Whitelaw Reid, Ohio in the War, vol. 2 (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1868), p. 145.
(95) Henry Otis Dwight Papers, pp. 4-5; D.W. Wood, History of the 20th O.V.V.I. Regiment, and Proceedings of the First Reunion at Mt. Vernon, Ohio, April 6th, 1876 (Columbus, Ohio, 1876), pp. 32; Roster Commission of Ohio, Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War of the Rebellion -- 1861-1866, vol. 2 (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1888), pp. 683-722.
(96) Henry Otis Dwight Papers, p. 5; A.B.C. Hitchcock, History of Shelby County, Ohio, and Representative Citizens (Chicago, 1973), p. 275; Military Service Records of Samuel S. Churchill.
(97) Roster Commission of Ohio, Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War of the Rebellion -- 1861-1866 (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1888); State of Ohio, Shelby County Marriage Records (February 1865); State of Ohio, Shelby County Birth Records (October 1865).
(98) State of Ohio, Shelby County Marriage Records (August 1866); Barbara Adams and Gene Mozley, Memorial Records of Shelby County, Ohio, 1819-1975 (Baltimore, 1977), George N. Waitman; Pension Records of Samuel S. Churchill.
(99) Pension Records of Samuel S. Churchill; United States Census Bureau, Ninth Census of the United States, 1870, Clinton Township, Shelby County, Ohio; United States Census Bureau, Ninth Census of the United States, 1870, Salem Township, Shelby County, Ohio.
(100) Pension Records of Samuel S. Churchill; State of Ohio, Shelby County Deed Book (1875); State of Ohio, Allen County Deed Book 36.
(101) City of Lima, Ohio, Lima, Ohio, City Directory (1889); United States Census Bureau, Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, Bath Township, Allen County, Ohio; Pension Records of Samuel S. Churchill.
(102) Pension Records of Samuel S. Churchill; Lima Daily Times, March 9, 1891.
(103) Pension Records of Samuel S. Churchill; Lima Daily Times, March 9, 1891.
(104) Pension Records of Samuel S. Churchill; D.W. Wood, History of the 20th O.V.V.I. Regiment, and Proceedings of the First Reunion at Mt. Vernon, Ohio, April 6th, 1876 (Columbus, Ohio, 1876), p. 32.

 

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