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Generals Buried in Spring Grove Cemetery
0f the forty Civil War generals who are buried in Spring Grove Cemetery, twenty-three had advanced from no military experience whatsoever to attain the highest rank in the Union Army. This remarkable feat underscores the nature of the Northern army that suppressed the rebellion of the Confederate states during the years 1861 to 1865. Initially, it was a force of "inspired volunteers" rather than a standing army in the European tradition.
Only seven of these forty leaders were graduates of West Point; Jacob Ammen, Joshua H. Bates, Sidney Burbank, Kenner Garrard, Joseph Hooker, Alexander McCook, and Godfrey Weitzel. Four of these seven - Burbank, Garrard, McCook, and Weitzel - were in the regular army at the outbreak of the war; the other three volunteered when the war started. Only four of the forty generals had ever been in combat before: William H. Lytle, August Moor, and Joseph Hooker served in the Mexican War, and William H. Baldwin fought under Giuseppe Garibaldi in the Italian civil war.
This lack of professional soldiers did not come about by chance. When the Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia in 1787, its delegates, who possessed a vast knowledge of European history, were determined not to create a legal basis for a standing army. The founding fathers believed that the standing armies belonging to royalty were responsible for the endless bloody wars that plagued Europe. Thus, the second amendment to the Constitution reads: "A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed." In debating this amendment, Elbridge Gerry, a delegate from Massachusetts, rose and queried: "What, sir, is the use of a militia? It is to prevent the establishment of a standing army, the bane of liberty". This provision made it illegal for Congress to form a federal militia, or standing army; only the states could establish a militia system. Furthermore, in Article 1, Section 8, the authors of the Constitution delegated to Congress the power "to raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years." Thus the founding fathers recognized the need for a federal army, but one that was to be kept under firm civilian control.
When the colonists won the American Revolution, military men were amazed at the failure of the British professional army to subdue the American citizen-soldier. The American Revolution provided the stimulus for an upheaval in military philosophy and planning and brought about the collapse of that European institution. The downfall was further hastened by Napoleon's ascent to power in France in 1804. He caused a revolutionary change in the philosophy of war. Napoleon instituted mass conscription and was the first to mobilize the entire population of a nation-state behind a war effort. In this period of fervid chauvinism, "honor" and "glory" became meaningful words in the national vocabulary, and the flag became an object of mystical adoration.
In view of these developments, the German military philosopher Carl von Clausewitz penned his monumental book On War. In it he formulated the classic definition that "war is a continuation of politics by other means." This observation forecast a civilian hand on the throttle of the military machine; no longer would wars be fought by standing armies of mercenaries. Clausewitz predicted with accuracy that nineteenth-century wars would be "an affair of the people," fought by national armies made up of citizen-soldiers from the entire population. And, most important according to Clausewitz, the leaders of the nation-state would show their people and the rest of the world that their side had been the victim of unprovoked aggression. "The flaming sword of vengeance" would be a factor in motivating the inspired volunteers to flock to the colors. The Civil War bore out Clausewitz' predictions.
In 1861, in spite of the war against the Indians in the Northwest Territory, the War of 1812, and the Mexican War, no serious efforts had yet been made by the United States to establish a standing army. At the outbreak of the Civil War the regular army consisted of only 1,098 officers and 15,259 men, organized into nineteen regiments. Needless to say, this miniscule force was not much of a factor in the formation of the Union Army, precisely as the framers of the Constitution had planned.
Fort Sumter was fired upon and the country ignited. The South had handed the North "the flaming sword of vengeance." President Lincoln called forth "the militia of the several States of the Union," and the military force that came into being was mainly an army of inspired volunteers. More than two and one half million men would serve in the Union Army, yet only six per cent of them were draftees.
The Civil War marked a turning point in federal-state relationships, in the system of associative federalism. The Southern states lost their right to leave the Union, and both Northern and Southern States forfeited control over the militia system of supplying the men to form an army in the event of an emergency. The Militia Act of July 17, 1862, provided that if a state had inadequate militia laws "the President is authorized... to make all necessary rules and regulations." On March 3, 1863, Congress passed a law providing for uniform enrollment of all eligible males of all the states, thus further federalizing a right that previously had been reserved to the states.
As in the Revolutionary War, the Civil War proved to many intelligent men that an army of volunteers was superior to a standing army of professional soldiers. Speaking of General William T. Sherman's army, General Ulysses S. Grant wrote,
[Sherman] had sixty thousand as good soldiers as ever trod the earth; better than any European soldiers, because they not only worked like a machine but the machine thought. European armies know very little what they are fighting for, and care less.
This thought mirrored that of General August Willich, one of Ohio's greatest Civil War soldiers. The professional soldier, according to Willich, led an isolated and insulated existence and was "estranged from public and industrial life." The men best equipped to lead an army of volunteers, he believed, were the men "standing and working in the midst of life from which the army has to be taken." The ultimate success of the Union Army was due to its volunteer make-up whose leaders were "the skillful engineer, the wide-awake merchant, the learned lawyer" instead of "the military academists... armed with the gospel of regulations."
The respective backgrounds of the generals buried in Spring Grove Cemetery reflect the nature of the Union Army as delineated in the foregoing discussion. The army was drawn from the population, it was fighting a cause that was "an affair of the people," and its leaders were mainly non-military men who were acting out a "continuation of politics by other means."
JACOB AMMEN was born January 7, 1808, in Botecourt County, Virginia, and at an early age moved with his family to Brown County, Ohio. He was graduated from West Point on July 31, 1831, but resigned from the army in 1837 after six years' service. During the next twelve years he was professor of mathematics at many schools: Bacon College, Georgetown, Kentucky; Jefferson College, Washington, Mississippi; and Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. He then returned to Ripley, Ohio, where he worked as a civil engineer from 1855 to 1861. At the outbreak of the Civil War, the fifty-three-year-old Ammen volunteered in the ranks as a private, but was named captain the next day. He campaigned in western Virginia and in the West throughout 1862. In July 1862 Ammen was appointed brigadier general of volunteers. After his recovery from a bout of typhoid fever contracted in late 1862, he went back into combat, commanding at various times the Department of Illinois and departments in Cincinnati, Kentucky, and Tennessee.
After the war General Ammen settled in Cincinnati where he worked as a civil engineer. From 1869 to 1872 he served as Hamilton County Surveyor and Engineer, and in 1874 was sent by the United States Navy Department to Central America to make recommendations on isthmian canal sites there. He then returned to his civil engineering profession in Hamilton County, where he lived in the suburb of Wyoming. General Ammen died February 6, 1894, shortly after his eighty-sixth birthday.
NICHOLAS LONGWORTH ANDERSON was born April 22, 1838, the scion of a distinguished Cincinnati family. He was the son of Larz and Catherine Long-worth Anderson and the grandson of Nicholas Longworth I. He was the nephew of Ohio Governor Charles Anderson and of Major Robert Anderson, who helped at the defense of Fort Sumter. After graduating from Harvard in 1858 and travelling in Europe, Anderson had just begun studying law in Cincinnati when the Civil War started. He volunteered as a private but soon was promoted to colonel. He served in western Virginia and in most of the major campaigns in the West, but was wounded severely twice and was mustered out of service in June 1864, having attained the rank of brevet major general. Following the death of his father, he spent the remainder of his life managing the Longworth estate. General Anderson died September 18, 1892, in Lucerne, Switzerland, at age fifty-four.
WILLIAM HENRY BALDWIN was born in 1832 in New Sharon, Maine. After graduating from Union College and Harvard Law School, he came to Cincinnati to begin law practice. Soon afterward the Italian civil war broke out, and he left Cincinnati to join with Garibaldi in all of his campaigns from Naples to Capri. While overseas Baldwin learned of the eruption of the Civil War in America and hastened home. He became lieutenant-colonel of the 83rd Ohio, taking part in the Vicksburg campaign and the capture of Mobile, and was later promoted to brevet brigadier general. After the war he spent the remaining years of his life practicing law in Cincinnati, where he died June 11, 1898, at age sixty-six.
HENRY BLACKSTONE BANNING was born November 10, 1834, at Banning Mills, Ohio. He was graduated from Kenyon College and began law practice in Mount Vernon, Ohio. When the Civil War broke out, he volunteered as a private, but soon was elected captain of his company and then colonel of the 87th Ohio. He took part in the battles of Rich Mountain, Romney, Blue Gap, Winchester, Cross Keys, Chickamauga, Buzzard's Roost, Resaca, Rome, Kennesaw Mountain, Dallas, Peachtree Creek, Jonesboro, and Nashville. For these extensive services he was named brevet brigadier general and a brevet major general.
JOSHUA HALL BATES was born March 5, 1817, at Boston, Massachusetts. He was graduated from West Point on July 1, 1847, and served five years in the regular army. After resigning his commission, he came to Cincinnati where he studied law and was admitted to the bar. General Bates was one of three Ohio militia brigadier generals who helped establish Camp Dennison near Cincinnati, and he is credited with organizing fifteen Ohio regiments for the field. Believing that he was too old at age forty-four to go into combat, General Bates resigned his commission as brigadier general on August 27, 1861. Returning to civilian life, he practiced law in Cincinnati until his death July 26, 1908, at age ninety-one.
CHARLES ELWOOD BROWN was born July 4, 1834, in Cincinnati. He was graduated from Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, in 1854. While teaching in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, he studied law, and returned to Ohio to open a law office in Chillicothe. He served as prosecuting attorney at Ross County, Ohio, from 1859 to 1860. When the Civil War broke out, he volunteered as a private but soon rose to lieutenant colonel of the 63rd Ohio. He served in Sherman's Atlanta campaign, and on July 22, 1864, was severely wounded, resulting in a leg amputation. He was invalided to the rear and served the rest of the war years as provost-marshal of the 18th Ohio District. He was mustered out of service July 8, 1865, as a brevet brigadier general. General Brown, then thirty-one, resumed his law practice in Chillicothe where he also acted as United States postmaster from 1866 to 1872. He then moved to Cincinnati where he served as a pension agent for the federal government. He was elected a member of the 49th and 50th Congresses, serving from 1885 to 1889. He foresake renomination for his law practice in Cincinnati, but was elected nevertheless to the Ohio Senate in 1900 and 1901. General Brown died May 22, 1904, in Cincinnati at age sixty-nine.
LEWIS GOVE BROWN was born October 31, 1841, in Brooklyn, New York. He came to Cincinnati, where he was studying law at the outbreak of the Civil War. He became a lieutenant and then a captain in the 11th Ohio, and was promoted to colonel in charge of the 117th Colored Infantry. He was made a brevet brigadier general at the close of the war and continued to serve until August 1867. He then lived in Texas where he became a federal revenue collector and a sheep rancher. This resulted in bankruptcy and forced him to return to Cincinnati. He was committed to the Longview State Hospital for the mentally ill, later was released, then suffered a relapse, and was ordered recommitted. Court bailiffs went to his parents' home to take him into custody, but General Brown refused to go with them. He locked himself in a room and committed suicide on May 18, 1889, at age forty-seven.
SIDNEY BURBANK was born September 26, 1807, at Lexington, Massachusetts. He was graduated from West Point on July 1, 1829. He served on frontier duty in Illinois, Wisconsin, and Iowa, where he took part in the campaign against the Seminole Indians (1840-1841). He then moved to frontier duty in Kansas and Texas. He was stationed at Newport Barracks, Newport, Kentucky, at the outbreak of the Civil War. He served as a regimental or brigade commander in all the campaigns of the Army of the Potomac. He made the army his career and retired after forty years' service on May 1, 1870. He lived in retirement in Newport until his death December 7, 188z, at age seventy-five.
HENRY MARTYN CIST was born February 20, 1839, the son of Charles Cist, Cincinnati's census-taker, chronicler, and statistician. He was graduated from Farmer's College in 1858, studied law in the office of George Hoadly, who later became governor of Ohio, and was admitted to the bar shortly before the Civil War started. He volunteered as a private, but soon became a colonel and served in all the major campaigns of the Army of the Cumberland. He was mustered out with the rank of brevet brigadier general and returned to Hamilton County where he resumed law practice and was twice elected mayor of College Hill. He wrote extensively for periodicals and encyclopedias and wrote one book, The Army of the Cumberland (published 1882), for "Scribner's War Series." In his later years General Cist traveled extensively in Europe. He died December 17, 1902, in Rome, Italy, at age sixty-three.
JACOB DOLSON COX was born October 27, 1828, in Montreal, Canada, where his father was working as a construction engineer. In 1851 Cox graduated from Oberlin College, where he absorbed abolitionist doctrines, and went on to study law in Warren, Ohio. He was a delegate to the first Ohio Republican convention in 1855, and was elected Ohio state senator in 1858. At the outbreak of the Civil War he was commissioned one of three brigadier generals of militia for the state of Ohio, but was soon named brigadier general of volunteers. He took part in the western Virginia campaign and commanded a division in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam. He was promoted to major general of volunteers and was in command of the Department of Ohio, headquartered at Cincinnati. During 1864 he commanded a division in Sherman's Atlanta campaign and a division in the sanguinary battles of Franklin and Nashville, Tennessee.
Before he was mustered out of service, General Cox was elected the twenty-eighth governor of Ohio, serving from 1866 to 1868. He then served as Secretary of the Interior during President Grant's first term, but resigned in protest over the corruption in Washington. He returned to Cincinnati where he practiced law until 1876, when he was elected to one term in the Forty-fifth Congress. Beginning in 1881 he spent the next sixteen years as dean of the Cincinnati Law School, and for four years performed a dual role as president of the University of Cincinnati. During the last years of his life, Cox wrote prolifically, chiefly military histories of the Civil War.
Jacob Dolson Cox, Civil War general, Ohio governor, cabinet officer, congressman, and university president, has been justly characterized as a universal genius and "world-famous as an authority on microscopy, and cathedral architecture, literator, politician, artist, soldier - everything." General Cox died just short of his seventy-second birthday on August 4, 1900, while visiting a son at Gloucester, Massachusetts.
ARTHUR FORRESTER DEVEREUX was born in 1838 in Salem, Massachusetts. He attended Harvard University. At the outbreak of the Civil War he was commissioned captain of the 8th Massachusetts Volunteers and soon became colonel of the 19th Massachusetts Volunteers. He commanded a brigade, with distinction, at the Battle of Gettysburg (June - July, 1863), and was named a brevet brigadier general for meritorious service. General Devereux's portrait is hung in the state house at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, in recognition of his heroism at Gettysburg.
General Devereux resigned from the army on February 27, 1864, and served for a time as a government engineer before moving to Cincinnati in 1878. He lived out his life in Cincinnati where he died February 13, 1906, at age sixty-eight. His wife, Clara Anna Rich Devereux, was the originator of Cincinnati's "Blue Book" and was society editor of the Cincinnati Enquirer for a number of years until her death in 1910. Their daughter, Miss Marion Devereux, then assumed her mother's position as society editor and became the undisputed "tsarina" of Cincinnati society for thirty years.
GEORGE RUTER ELSTNER was born March 14, 1842, in Cincinnati. He volunteered for service at the age of nineteen and was elected first lieutenant of the 50th Ohio. He served through most of the regiment's campaigns in the West and rose to become lieutenant-colonel. He was killed in action on August 8, 1864, during the battle of Atlanta. After the war was over, on June 22, 1865, his body was returned to Cincinnati for burial in Spring Grove Cemetery. He was posthumously promoted to brevet colonel and brevet brigadier general.
MANNING FERGUSON FORCE was born December 17, 1824, in Washington, D. C. He was the son of Peter Force, whose collection of books and papers became an important part of the foundation of the Library of Congress. After graduation from Harvard, he came to Cincinnati, studied law, and was admitted to the bar. He entered the Civil War as major of the 20th Ohio, of which he soon became colonel. He took part in the battles of Fort Donelson, Shiloh, Vicksburg, Atlanta, and Sherman's march through Georgia and the Carolinas. He was successively promoted to brigadier general and brevet major general, and by the end of the war was a division commander. He refused a commission in the regular army and returned to Cincinnati where he resumed the practice of law. He was president of the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio (now The Cincinnati Historical Society) from 1870 to 1888. He was the author of five books, ranging from accounts of Civil War campaigns to a critique of Darwinism. He served as judge of the Court of Common Pleas in Cincinnati and judge of the Superior Court of Ohio. Ill health forced his retirement from public life, and he was named commandant of the Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Home at Sandusky, Ohio, where he died May 8, 1899, at age seventy-four.
JEPTHA GARRARD was born April 21, 1836, in Cincinnati to creditable lineage. His mother, Sarah Bella Ludlow Garrard McLean, was a daughter of Israel Ludlow, one of the founders and pioneer landowners of the area which became downtown Cincinnati. He was the grandson, also, of the second governor of Kentucky, James Garrard. He was the brother of Israel Garrard and Kenner Garrard, both Union generals, and first cousin to another general, Theophilus Toulmin Garrard. After admission to the bar, he entered the army as a cavalry captain, then became colonel of a New York cavalry regiment. He was mustered out as a brevet brigadier general. He returned to Cincinnati where he spent the remainder of his life managing the large Ludlow and Garrard estates. He died December 16, 1915, in Cincinnati at age seventy-nine.
KENNER GARRARD, brother of Jeptha Garrard, was born September 21, 1827, in Bourbon County, Kentucky, while his mother was visiting relatives there. He attended Harvard but left in his sophomore year for West Point, graduating eighth in his class in 1851. He served in the regular army, and was stationed in Texas when the war broke out. Making known his loyalty to the Union cause, he was imprisoned by the Confederates, but was exchanged on August 27, 1862. He was appointed colonel of the 146th New York and took part as brigadier general in the battles of Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, and Gettysburg. Transferred to the West, he took part in Sherman's Atlanta campaign as a division commander and participated in the battle of Nashville. He remained in the regular army for a time after the war ended, but resigned on November 9, 1866. Upon his return to Cincinnati he devoted the rest of his life to civic affairs and historical studies. He died May 15, 1879, in Cincinnati at age fifty-one.
THOMAS TINSLEY HEATH was born March 10, 1835, at Xenia, Ohio. He attended Marietta College and Ohio Wesleyan University and later was graduated from the Cincinnati Law School. After he was admitted to the bar in 1858, he studied abroad in England, Ireland, and France, returning to Cincinnati in time to volunteer for service at the outbreak of the war. His first assignment was to recruit three regiments of infantry and one of cavalry, which he did with speed and skill. He was commissioned a lieutenant-colonel of the 5th Ohio Cavalry and took part in the battle of Shiloh. After a period of illness, he returned to combat and served with Sherman's army through the Atlanta campaign and the march through Georgia and the Carolinas. Previously, he had been named brevet brigadier general for gallantry at the battle of Waynesboro, Georgia. He enjoyed the unique distinction of being in command of the flag escort that was part of the ceremony of the final surrender of the Confederate forces under General Joseph E. Johnson to General Sherman in North Carolina. He returned to Cincinnati where he not only resumed the practice of law but also took up inventing. Among his creations was the method of printing newspapers called stereotyping. General Heath lived to be ninety, dying at his home in Loveland, Ohio, on October 18, 1925.
ANDREW HICKENLOOPER was born August 10, 1837, in Hudson, Ohio, but moved with his family to Cincinnati where he was educated. At the outbreak of the Civil War he left his post as city surveyor and recruited a battery of artillery from southwestern Ohio, which took part in battles in Missouri and at the battle of Shiloh. During the siege of Vicksburg, General Grant named Hickenlooper chief engineer in charge of all engineering operations during the campaign and march through Georgia and the Carolinas. In recognition of distinguished service, he was named brevet brigadier general on May 20, 1865. After the war he served as United States marshal for the Southern District of Ohio, but resigned in 1871 to become city engineer of Cincinnati. From this post he entered public utility work, becoming president of the Cincinnati Gas, Light and Coke Company in 1877. He served as lieutenant-governor of Ohio from 1880 to 1882, but then refused further public office. He spent the rest of his life as president of the utility company and devoted much time to writing about the Civil War and about street lighting and heating. [General Hickenlooper's papers are now part of the collection of The Cincinnati Historical Society.] In 1903 he traveled to Mexico in an unsuccessful search for better health, but upon his return to Cincinnati he died May 12, 1904, at age sixty-six.
JOSEPH HOOKER, who was born November 13, 1814, in Hadley, Massachusetts, held higher rank than any of the other generals buried in Spring Grove Cemetery. After graduation from West Point in 1837, he served as a young officer in the regular army. His record in the Mexican War was unsurpassed for gallant and meritorious service, and on June 9, 1849, he became assistant adjutant general of the Pacific Division of the United States Army. After fourteen years of service, he resigned his commission to begin an unsuccessful venture in farming in California. His whereabouts and activities are obscure until 1858, when he requested reappointment as an army officer. His request was refused, and he remained in California and Oregon until the Civil War, when he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers. He soon became a major general and played a conspicuous role in all major battles in Virginia in 1861 and 1862. He was dubbed "Fighting Joe Hooker" after an Associated Press dispatch sent out during the Seven Days' Battles described the combat under the title "Fighting-Joe Hooker," a headline which other editors picked up omitting the hyphen. From then on Hooker, to his chagrin, was known as "Fighting Joe Hooker." After Burnside's defeat at Fredericksburg, Hooker was given command of the Army of the Potomac, then considered the highest command in the Union Army. He was defeated at the battle of Chancellorsville and requested relief from command, which was granted. In late 1863 he commanded the XI and XII Corps in Grant's Chattanooga campaign with skill and success, and in early 1864 he successfully commanded an army corps in Sherman's Atlanta campaign. Resenting subordination to a general who was junior in rank, Hooker asked Sherman to relieve him of his command. Hooker was sent to Cincinnati where he took charge of the Northern Department, which embraced Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois. In Cincinnati he married Olivia Groesbeck, sister of Congressman William Groesbeck. He remained in the regular army and was retired in 1868 as a major general of regulars. General Hooker died at age sixty-four on October 31, 1879, while visiting in Garden City, New York.
HENRY GASSAWAY KENNETT was born August 29, 1835, in Cincinnati where he was a lawyer at the outbreak of the war. He entered the service as lieutenant-colonel of the 27th Ohio and served in campaigns in Missouri. He was then appointed colonel of the 79th Ohio Volunteers and led his regiment in the campaigns in Tennessee and at the battle of Lookout Mountain. Kennett resigned from the service on August 1, 1864, and returned to Cincinnati where he resumed the practice of law. He was named a brevet brigadier general for meritorious service during the war. After the war he served as a member of the Ohio House of Representatives. General Kennett died January 6, 1895, in Cincinnati at age fifty-nine.
BYRON KIRBY was born September 8, 1829, in Cincinnati. When the Civil War broke out, he enlisted as a private in the regular army but was soon transferred to the 3rd Maryland Cavalry. Most of his war service was with this organization, which served in the West. Kirby was named a brevet brigadier general for meritorious service during the war. After the war he returned to Cincinnati where he practiced law for the remainder of his life. He was the brother-in-law of General and Congressman Henry B. Banning of Cincinnati. At the time of his death General Kirby was a member of the Cincinnati City Council. He died at his home in Mount Adams on November 29, 1881, at age fifty-two.
ELISHA BASSETT LANGDON was born February 24, 1827, in the Cincinnati suburb of Linwood. He attended Miami University at Oxford, Ohio, but did not graduate. He became interested in politics and was elected to the Ohio House of Representatives as a Democrat. He then studied law in the office of William Groesbeck and was admitted to the bar. Later he was elected to the Ohio Senate. At the outbreak of the Civil War he, along with many other War Democrats, supported the Union. He became a major in the est Ohio Volunteers, the first Ohio regiment to be mustered into the volunteer army, and in less than a year became the regiment's lieutenant-colonel. He served in most of the sanguinary and great battles in the West: Shiloh, Perryville, Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge. At the end of the war he was named a brevet brigadier general and was given the federal position of assessor of internal revenue for the first district of Ohio. General Langdon was highly respected by both Republicans and Democrats and was almost certain of victory as the Republican candidate for governor of Ohio in the fall elections of 1867. But General Langdon, who had never completely recovered from the wounds he suffered during the war, died suddenly in Cincinnati on May 30, 1867, at age forty. After his death, the Republican party was compelled to select another candidate for governor and they turned to Cincinnati Congressman Rutherford B. Hayes, who went on to serve two terms as governor of Ohio and eventually was elected the nineteenth President of the United States.
WILLIAM HAINES LYTLE was born November 2, 1826, in Cincinnati. He was the son of Robert Lytle, a United States congressman from Cincinnati, and the grandson of William Lytle, one of Cincinnati's pioneer settlers. William H. Lytle was graduated from Cincinnati College when he was sixteen years old. He wanted to go to West Point, but was persuaded by his family to pursue the study of law. He served in the Mexican War and by its end had attained the rank of captain. After the Mexican War he resumed the practice of law in Cincinnati. In 1852 and 1854 he was elected a member of the Ohio state legislature as a Democrat, serving for a time as speaker of the house. He was an unsuccessful candidate for lieutenant governor of Ohio in 1857, but shortly thereafter the Republican governor, Salmon P. Chase, appointed him a major general of the Ohio militia.
At the outbreak of the Civil War General Lytle established Camp Harrison, the first Civil War training camp in southwestern Ohio. He sought and received appointment as colonel of the 10th Ohio, the Irish regiment from Cincinnati. Campaigning in western Virginia, he was severely wounded in the battle at Carnifex Ferry on September 10, 1861. He was wounded again in the battle of Perryville, Kentucky, on October 8, 1862, and was taken prisoner. He was soon paroled and was returned to Cincinnati where he was promoted to brigadier general. He returned to duty as a brigade commander in the Army of the Cumberland in time to take part in the sanguinary battle of Chickamauga. General Lytle was killed during the second day of that battle, on September 20, 1863. No event during the Civil War produced such a demonstration of grief as did his death at age thirty-six. He was the only son of a distinguished family and had never married. With his death the family name ceased to exist. Before the war General Lytle had written a poem entitled "Anthony and Cleopatra," in which the main character of the romantic narrative was a soldier who died in battle. The poem was first published in the Cincinnati Commercial on July 29, 1858, and William Haines Lytle had gained instant recognition as a lyric poet. Like the main character in his poem, General Lytle had died in battle. His body was recovered and was returned to Cincinnati where funeral services were held on October 22, 1863. It was Cincinnati's most impressive funeral. The services were held in the early afternoon at Christ Church on Fourth Street, and so many people lined the streets that the funeral cortege did not reach Spring Grove Cemetery until dusk. General Lytle's monument, one of the most impressive ones there, is near the entrance to the cemetery.
ALEXANDER MCDOWELL McCOOK was second in rank only to General Joseph Hooker among the generals buried in Spring Grove Cemetery. For nearly two years he was an army corps commander in the Army of the Cumberland. He was born April 22, 1831, in Columbiana County, Ohio, one of the famous "Fighting McCooks." His father, Daniel McCook, who is also buried in Spring Grove, contributed eight sons to the Union Army. His uncle, Dr. John McCook, had as sons one major general, one brigadier general, and two lieutenants in the army, and one naval lieutenant. However, among all the McCooks, Alexander McDowell was the only one who was a professional soldier. All the others were civilians without military experience before the war started.
Alexander McDowell McCook was graduated from West Point in 1852, served in the regular army at frontier posts, and later became an instructor at West Point. At the start of the war he was named colonel of the est Ohio Volunteers and took part in the first battle of Bull Run. Transferred to the West, he first commanded a brigade, then a division, and was soon promoted to command of an army corps. He took part in the battles of Shiloh, Perryville, Stones River, the Tullahoma campaign, and the battle of Chickamauga. Although he was exonerated by a board of inquiry for the disaster that befell his army corps at the battle of Chickamauga, he was never again given high command. He remained in the regular army after the war, serving much time at frontier posts. He advanced through the ranks and had reached the rank of major general in the regular army when he retired in 1895. Among his many interesting postwar services was his assignment in 1896 to represent the United States at the coronation ceremonies of Czar Nicholas II of Russia. General McCook died in Dayton, Ohio, June 12, 1903, at age seventy-two.
DANIEL McCOOK, JR., a brother of Alexander McDowell McCook, was born at Carrollton, Ohio, July 22, 1834. He studied law in Steubenville, Ohio, then moved to Leavenworth, Kansas, where he practiced law with two future Union Army generals, William T. Sherman and Thomas Ewing, Jr. He began the war as a captain of the 1st Kansas Volunteers, became colonel of the 52nd Ohio, and soon commanded a brigade. He took part in the battles of Shiloh, Perryville, Stones River, Chickamauga, and Missionary Ridge. He participated in Sherman's Atlanta campaign, and in leading an assault against Kennesaw Mountain on June 27, 1864, he was critically wounded. He was taken to the home of a brother in Steubenville, Ohio, where he died on July 17, 1864, at age twenty-nine. The day before his death he was named a brigadier general of volunteers for distinguished gallantry in battle.
EDWIN STANTON McCOOK, a brother of Alexander McDowell and Daniel McCook, Jr., was born March 26, 1837, at Carrollton, Ohio. He was named for an older brother's law partner, Edwin M. Stanton of Steubenville, Ohio, who later became President Lincoln's Secretary of War. When the Civil War began, Edwin Stanton McCook was living in Illinois, where he recruited a company and became its captain, serving with the 31st Illinois. He served as a regimental and brigade commander under General Grant in all the major battles in the West. He then took part in Sherman's Atlanta campaign and the march through Georgia and the Carolinas. He was named a brevet brigadier general at the end of the war. After the Civil War he became acting governor of the Dakota Territory. While speaking before a meeting at the town of Yankton, Dakota Territory, he was shot by a member of the audience. He died September 12, 1873, at age thirty-six, and his body was returned to Cincinnati for burial.
ROBERT LATIMER McCOOK, a brother of Alexander McDowell, Daniel, Jr., and Edwin Stanton McCook, was born December 28, 1827, at New Lisbon, Ohio. He studied law in the offices of Stanton and McCook in Steubenville, Ohio, for a time, then moved to Cincinnati where he became the law partner of the noted German lawyer, Judge Johann Bernhard Stallo. When the war broke out, McCook was elected colonel of the 9th Ohio, an all-German regiment from Cincinnati. He realized that his election was politically inspired and that he had no military experience. The actual commander was August Willich, who drilled the regiment and made it into an efficient fighting unit. This led McCook to make the humorous remark that he was "just the clerk for a thousand Dutchmen." However, as the war progressed, McCook learned the soldier's trade well, distinguished himself as a brigade commander at the battle of Mill Springs, Kentucky, and was promoted to brigadier general. During the summer of i 86'. while marching his brigade through northern Alabama into Tennessee, McCook, who was ill and was riding in an ambulance, was ambushed by guerrillas. He was fatally wounded and was taken to a nearby farmhouse where he died August 6, 1862, at age thirty-four.
STEPHEN JOSEPH McGROARTY was born in Mount Charles, County of Donegal, Ireland, in 183o. His family immigrated to the United States three years later, where his father Cornelius founded the settlement of Fayetteville in Brown County, Ohio. Stephen J. McGroarty became a Cincinnati lawyer and at the beginning of the Civil War was elected captain of a company in the 10th Ohio Volunteers, the Irish regiment from Cincinnati. During a campaign in western Virginia, he was shot through the right lung. Upon his recovery he was made lieutenant-colonel of the 61st Ohio Volunteers. McGroarty was wounded many times during the Civil War, perhaps as many as twenty-three times, according to one source. He was wounded so severely in the battle of Peachtree Creek in July 1 1864 that his left arm had to be amputated. Later he was appointed colonel of the 82nd Ohio and at the end of the war was named brevet brigadier general.
General McGroarty was one of the most respected men in Cincinnati because of his outstanding war service. It was then the custom to elect wounded war heroes to public office so they would have employment and income. Thus, in the August 1866 Hamilton County Republican caucus, General McGroarty sought the Republican nomination for county auditor, but was defeated by yet another wounded war hero, General August Willich. He then contended for the Democratic nomination for prosecuting attorney of Hamilton County and gained the nomination, but was defeated in the October election. Finally, in the fall elections of 1869, he was elected recorder of Hamilton County on the Democratic ticket, but he died two months before he was to take office, on January 2, 1870, at age thirty-nine. However, in later years his friends secured the job of postmistress of the College Hill station for his widow, Mary McGroarty, who held that position for many years.
AUGUST MOOR was born March 27, 1814 in Leipzig, Germany. He came to the United States as a young man and settled for a while in Pennsylvania. In 1837, at age twenty-three, he took part in the Seminole Indian war as a first lieutenant in the First Pennsylvania Volunteers. Later he moved to Cincinnati and served as a captain of Ohio troops in the Mexican War from May to October 1846. At the beginning of the Civil War he was appointed colonel of the 28th Ohio Volunteers, a regiment composed of Cincinnati Germans. His regiment suffered many defeats in campaigns in western Virginia, Virginia, and Maryland. He was captured at the battle of South Mountain in September 1862 and was placed in a Confederate prison camp, then later was exchanged. He was honorably mustered out of the service on July 23, 1864, and was named a brevet brigadier general of volunteers. General Moor spent the remainder of his life in Cincinnati where he died October 11, 1883, at age sixty-nine.
FREDERICK WILLIAM MOORE was born in Green Township, Hamilton County, Ohio, on February 11, 1840. He was a student at the Cincinnati Law School when the Civil War broke out, but soon volunteered in the 5th Ohio Volunteers. Commissioned a first lieutenant, he participated in the battle of Port Republic in the Shenandoah Valley, then was recalled to Ohio and appointed colonel of the 83rd Ohio Volunteers. He was only twenty-two years old at the time of his appointment, the youngest colonel in the volunteer army at that time. He led his regiment in the Vicksburg campaign and in 1865 was in command of the Third Brigade of the Second Division of the 13th Army Corps in the campaign of Mobile. Later in the year he was named brevet brigadier general. At the end of the Civil War he was given a commission in the regular army, where he served for two years before resigning his commission on April 1, 1867, to return to Cincinnati to complete his law studies. He became a practicing attorney and served as judge of the Common Pleas Court from 1860 to 1877. He then became a Superior Court judge, serving from 1889 until 1897, when he resumed his law practice. General Moore, then living in retirement at Winton Place, was planning a trip to Vicksburg, Mississippi, to take part in ceremonies dedicating a monument to the service of his regiment when he died suddenly on May 6, 1905, at age sixty-five.
GEORGE W. NEFF was born January 5, 1833, in Cincinnati. His father was president of the Independent Fire Engine and Hose Company and president of the Firemen's Insurance Company until his death in 1850. Young George W. Neff assumed his father's business and was a member of the "Rover Guards," one of Cincinnati's pre-Civil War militia companies. At the outbreak of the Civil War he was briefly in command of Camp Harrison, then became the principal organizer of the 2nd Kentucky Volunteers. In the early days of the Civil War, Kentucky assumed a position of neutrality, and Governor Beriah Magoffin did not supply volunteers for the Union Army. As there were many more volunteers from Ohio than had been requested, it was decided to raise troops in Cincinnati and call them Kentucky volunteers. Thus, most of Colonel Neff's 2nd Kentucky volunteers were from Ohio. Neff served with his regiment in western Virginia, but was captured during the battle of Scarry Creek on July 17, 1861. He suffered much hardship in Confederate prison camps. He was first imprisoned at Richmond, Virginia, then at Charleston, South Carolina, then was moved to a prison camp at Columbia, South Carolina, then back to Richmond, then to Salisbury, North Carolina, and finally to Belle Isle, near Richmond. After a year's imprisonment, he was exchanged. He was on leave of absence in Cincinnati when the Confederates threatened the city in September 1862z and he volunteered his services to General Lew Wallace until the threat of siege was over. He was then named commandant of Camp Dennison. He repelled the attack of John Hunt Morgan in July 1863 and took part in the pursuit of Morgan's raiders across southern Ohio. After this he was named colonel of the 88th Ohio Volunteers, where his principal duty was guarding Confederate prisoners confined at Camp Chase in Columbus, Ohio. Near the end of the war he was named a brevet brigadier general. General Neff died at Newport, Kentucky, on December 13, 1892, at age fifty-nine.
EDWARD FOLLANSBEE NOYES was born October 3, 1832, at Haverhill, Massachusetts. He was orphaned at age three and in his youth served as a printer's apprentice. He worked his way through Dartmouth College, graduating fourth in a class of fifty-seven. After graduation he visited a classmate in Cincinnati and decided to stay to study law at the Cincinnati Law School, graduating in 1858. He practiced law in Cincinnati until the start of the Civil War, when he became a major in the 39th Ohio Volunteers, a regiment from Hamilton County. He campaigned in Missouri with the 39th Ohio in the operations around New Madrid and Island Number Ten on the Mississippi River. On October 1, 1862, he became colonel of the regiment and soon after took part in the battles at Iuka and Corinth, Mississippi. After joining in Grant's Vicksburg campaign, his regiment was assigned to garrison duty in middle Tennessee. Noyes was a regimental commander in Sherman's Atlanta campaign when he suffered a severe wound on July 4, 1864, that required amputation of a leg. While still on crutches, he requested an assignment and was given command of Camp Dennison. He was named a brevet brigadier general of volunteers for meritorious service on March 13, 1865, and resigned from the army on April 22, 1865. General Noyes then became city solicitor of Cincinnati and was elected judge of the probate court of Hamilton County in October 1866.
In the fall of 1871, General Noyes, a Republican, was elected the thirtieth governor of Ohio. He was defeated for re-election in 1873, but in 1876 he served as national campaign manager for Rutherford B. Hayes in his successful bid for the presidency. He was then named United States Minister to France from 1877 to 1881, when he returned to Cincinnati and resumed his law practice, serving also a term as judge of the Superior Court. His distinguished and eventful life came to an end in Cincinnati on September 4, 1890, shortly before his fifty-eighth birthday.
AUGUSTUS COMMODORE PARRY was born December 15, 1828, in New Jersey, and was brought to Cincinnati by his parents when he was an infant. Both his parents died soon after, and he was left an orphan at an early age. He was apprenticed by his guardian as a tinner, then went into business for himself and operated a tinsmith's shop on Race Street between Front and Columbia Streets. In the days before the Civil War he was active as a volunteer fireman and as a member of the Rover Guards, a Cincinnati militia company. At the outbreak of the Civil War Parry was commissioned a major in the 2nd Ohio Volunteers. He took part in the first large-scale battle of the Civil War, the battle of Bull Run. Returning to Cincinnati, he was appointed major of the 47th Ohio Volunteers and went with his new regiment to western Virginia where he took part in the battle of Carnifex Ferry. In January 1863 his regiment was sent to Vicksburg. Soon afterward Parry was promoted to colonel in command of the 47th Ohio. After the fall of Vicksburg, he led his regiment in the battle of Missionary Ridge and took part in the relief expedition to East Tennessee. He joined Sherman's campaign from Chattanooga to Atlanta in 1864, taking part in the battles of Resaca and Kennesaw Mountain. Parry was wounded in the battle of Kennesaw Mountain, but recovered in time to rejoin Sherman's march through Georgia and the Carolinas. He was named a brevet brigadier general near the end of the war. In the fall of 1865 he was elected treasurer of Hamilton County. But his Civil War service had taken its toll on his health, and General Parry contracted tuberculosis and died while in office on December 16, 1866, at age thirty-eight.
JOHN POTTS SLOUGH was born February 1, 1829, in Cincinnati, the son of Martin Slough, an early pioneer in Cincinnati. At age twenty-one he was elected a member of the Ohio legislature, where he quickly established a reputation for belligerency when he was expelled for engaging in a fist fight with another legislator in a political dispute. He moved from Cincinnati to Kansas Territory and from there to Denver in Colorado Territory. Not until a year after the start of the Civil War did he organize the 1st Colorado Infantry and become its colonel. In 1862 Colonel Slough took his Colorado force out to meet Confederate General Henry H. Sibley, who had invaded New Mexico Territory hoping to secure it and California for the Confederacy. Colonel Slough's army fought and won a fierce battle at Glorietta Pass, which brought him considerable fame in the East. He went to Washington and was appointed a brigadier general of volunteers on August 24, 1862. General Slough was then appointed military governor of the city of Alexandria, Virginia, situated across the Potomac River from Washington. He served in this post throughout the Civil War and was honorably mustered out of the volunteer army on August 24, 1865.
General Slough was then appointed chief justice of the New Mexico Territory, where he had few friends and "his imperious temper rendered him very unpopular." After a member of the New Mexico territorial legislature introduced a resolution censuring General Slough for unprofessional conduct, Slough accosted the legislator in a billiard parlor in Santa Fe, and a physical scuffle ensued. In the course of the struggle, General Slough was shot. He died two days later, on December 15, 1867. He was then thirty-eight years old. He was first buried in Santa Fe, but later his remains were returned to Cincinnati for burial in Spring Grove.
PETER JOHN SULLIVAN was born March 15, 1821, in County Cork, Ireland, and was brought by his parents to settle in Philadelphia at age two. He was graduated from the University of Pennsylvania and, although he was a civilian, worked as a military engineer in Washington, D.C. He then served as the official stenographer for the United States Senate, recording the historic speeches made by Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and other oratorical giants. He came to Cincinnati in 1848 and became the protege of Judge Bellamy Storer, studying law in Judge Storer's office before he was admitted to the bar. During this period he worked also as a draftsman for the United States topographical engineers who were stationed in Cincinnati. During the 1855 Know-Nothing riots he commanded a regiment of German volunteers who helped suppress the riots.
By the outbreak of the Civil War, Peter J. Sullivan had accumulated a large fortune. He was not offered a commission in the Union Army at the outset because Governor William Dennison, a Republican, suspected Sullivan, a Democrat, of harboring Confederate sympathies. In order to dispel the suspicion, Sullivan, at his own expense, raised four regiments which were accepted by the government. When word reached President Lincoln of Sullivan's ardent support of the Union, he insisted that Sullivan be named lieutenant colonel of the 48th Ohio Volunteers. Within two months, in January 1862, he was colonel of the regiment. Sullivan led his regiment in the sanguinary battle of Shiloh (April 6-7, 1862), during which encounter four horses were killed beneath him and he was wounded three times. Because of these wounds, he was never able to take active command again, nor did he ever completely recover his health. He served for a time as post commander at Memphis, Tennessee, while it was occupied by Union troops and then served as a judge on a military court of claims. He was named a brevet brigadier general at the close of the war and was appointed United States Minister to Colombia by President Andrew Johnson. In 1869 he was reappointed to the same post by President Grant, but resigned soon after because of frail health and returned to Cincinnati to practice law. General Sullivan died March 2, 1883, in Cincinnati at age sixty-one.
MELANCTHON SMITH WADE was born December 2, 1802, in Cincinnati. He was the son of David E. Wade, one of Cincinnati's earliest settlers and a prominent leader in the early development of the city. Melancthon S. Wade was educated in the local schools and then entered the dry goods business where he was so successful that he was able to retire in 1840 at age thirty-eight. He devoted much of his time to the affairs of the Ohio state militia, rising in rank from captain to brigadier general At the outbreak of the Civil War he was fifty-eight years old, but he devoted much time to organizing Ohio regiments for service in the field. On October 1, 1861, he was appointed a brigadier general of volunteers and became the first post commander of Camp Dennison, a training center for recruits. His age and poor health forced him to resign on March 18, 1862. General Wade died August 11, 1868, at age sixty-five.
GODFREY WEITZEL, a native of Cincinnati, had the unique distinction of being the first Union general to occupy the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia, signaling the end of the Civil War. He was born November 1, 1835, in Cincinnati, and after education in the local schools went to West Point where he graduated second in his class in 1855. He then served in the engineer corps, working on harbor defenses at New Orleans. From 1859 to 1861 he taught at West Point. He served as General Benjamin Butler's second in command in the capture of New Orleans and as acting mayor of that city during its military occupation. On August 29, 1862, Weitzel, than a first lieutenant in the regular army, was appointed a brigadier general of volunteers. He commanded a division in the successful operations against Port Hudson on the Mississippi River in 1863. Then in 1864 he successively commanded the XVIII and XXV army corps in the operations along the James River in Virginia. In the final campaign in Virginia, Weitzel, who had risen to the rank of major-general, commanded all of the Union troops north of the Appomattox River and led the successful charge through the Confederate lines surrounding Richmond on April 2, 1865. On April 3, 1865, he electrified the nation with his telegram to General U. S. Grant: "We entered Richmond at eight o'clock this morning." This meant to the nation that the Civil War was near an end. At the close of the war General Weitzel remained in the army as a captain in the engineer corps. He was responsible for a number of notable engineering achievements including the construction of the ship canal at the Falls of the Ohio, the great lock at Sault Sainte Marie, and the lighthouse on Stannard's Rock in Lake Superior, thirty miles off the Upper Michigan shore. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel in the regular army on June 23, 1882. General Weitzel was stationed in Philadelphia when he died March 19, 1884, at age forty-eight.
LOUIS EUGENE YORKE was born December 13, 1832, in Salem County, New Jersey. He entered the Civil War as a captain of the 13th U. S. Infantry and soon became assistant inspector general in Grant's Vicksburg campaign. At the end of the Civil War he was named a brevet brigadier general for meritorious service. He came to Cincinnati in 1866 and became president of the Miami Machine Works. General Yorke died in Cincinnati on July 1, 1873, at age forty.
THOMAS LOWRY YOUNG was born December 14, 1832, in Killyleagh, County Down, Ireland. He came to the United States with his parents at age twelve and was educated in the public schools of New York City. In 1848, when he was sixteen, he enlisted in the United States Army as a private and served for ten years, advancing through the ranks to become a first sergeant. He left the army in 1858 and came to Cincinnati where he became assistant superintendent of the House of Refuge Reform School. When the Civil War began he offered his services to General Winfield Scott, but General Scott, believing that the war would not last long, declined Young's aid. Young then went to Missouri where he became captain of a company of Missouri volunteers who served as General John C. Fremont's bodyguard. When Fremont's bodyguard was dissolved, Thomas L. Young returned to Sidney, Ohio, to become editor of a Democratic newspaper. Finally, on September 17, 1862, he secured a commission as major in the newly-formed 118th Ohio Volunteers. He was on detached duty for some time, serving as provost marshal in different areas of Kentucky. On April 17, 1863, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel of the regiment and took part in General A. E. Burnside's campaign and capture of Knoxville, Tennessee. Young was promoted to colonel on April 11, 1864, and his regiment became part of General Sherman's army. He saw his first real action in the battle of Resaca, Georgia, and served until the capture of Atlanta. Because of ill health he was forced to resign on September 14, 1864. He was named a brevet brigadier general of volunteers for meritorious service on March 13, 1865.
General Young, then thirty-two, returned to Cincinnati to study law. He was admitted to the bar, served as assistant city auditor of Cincinnati, and in the fall of 1865 was elected a member of the Ohio House of Representatives. In 1867 he was elected recorder of Hamilton County. The following year he was appointed supervisor of internal revenue for the southern district of Ohio, but found himself in disagreement with the policies of President Andrew Johnson and therefore resigned. He then devoted himself to real estate activities, but returned to politics in 1871 and was elected to the Ohio Senate. After his term of office was over, he decided not to run again but to devote himself to his law practice. However, in 1875 he again returned to politics as a successful candidate for lieutenant-governor of Ohio. The following year Ohio Governor Rutherford B. Hayes was elected the nineteenth President of the United States, and Thomas L. Young succeeded him as the thirty-third governor of Ohio. He did not seek re-election as governor, but became a member of the Forty-sixth and Forty-seventh Congresses of the United States, serving from 1879 to 1883. He was unsuccessful in his bid for a third term and again withdrew from political life to resume his law practice in Cincinnati. Thomas Lowry Young, former Irish immigrant, private in the army, Civil War general, state representative and senator, governor of Ohio, and United States congressman, died on July 20, 1888, in Cincinnati at age fifty-five.
Two other Civil War generals, CHARLES SAWYER RUSSELL and THOMAS J. WILLIAMS, are buried in Spring Grove Cemetery, but not enough is known about them to supply biographical material. It is known, however, that both were brevet brigadier generals and that both died in November 1866.
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